Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 2019-11-22T08:07:36+00:00 Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Asian Research Journal of Arts &amp; Social Sciences (ISSN: 2456-4761)</strong> aims to publish high quality papers (<a href="/index.php/ARJASS/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of Arts, Humanities and Social sciences. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> Vocational Education and Training Perception on Integration of Prisoners into the Society 2019-11-22T08:07:35+00:00 Clement Muinde Mbatha Bonaventure W. Kere Ahmed Ferej Kisilu Mashtakh Kitainge <p>This study sought to evaluate Vocational Education and Training (VET) perception on integration of prisoners back into the society. The study was undertaken in Mombasa County with a primary focus drawn to Shimo La Tewa main prison and Shimo La Tewa Medium Security Prison. Questionnaire instruments were used for data collection. Different questionnaires were administered to different response groups. The groups included the prison administrators, the trainers, trainees and ex-prisoners. Sample selection method was majorly purposive for all groups except for the trainees who were selected randomly from a pool of those who undertook VET. The information was coded, cleaned and analyzed using the Predictive Analytical Software (PASW). Mixed methods such as qualitative and quantitative techniques were used as the data collected was both qualitative and quantitative. To facilitate the data collection that was qualitative in nature open ended questions were captured in the questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to deduce meaningful information. Regression analysis was done to assess the perception on integration of prisoners into the society. The model was found to be statistically significant (and the degree of linear relationship &nbsp;while the total amount of variation explained by perception was significant. Other perceptions deduced to impact on integration back into the society, societal point of view on the released persons, the prison administration point of view on the role of VET for inmates in prison and finally, the perception of trainers based in remunerative impact of VET on them. The research recommends that an orientation programme on importance of VET be conducted for prisoners before they can make choices on the types of courses that they wish to undertake, civic education for the society should be done for it is an integral part in ensuring successful re-entry for the prisoners, policies to reduce discrimination against prisoner need to be formulated and enacted, there is need to enhance human resource capital in prisons and finally, material resources to facilitate implementation of VET need to conform with market requirements.</p> 2019-10-14T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Socioeconomic Factors Responsible for Livelihood Improvement of Agar (Aquilaria malaccensis. roxb) Oil Producers of Maulvibazar District, Bangladesh 2019-11-22T08:07:36+00:00 Bibi Marium Jasim Uddin Ahmed Kanij Fatema Md. Nur Mozahid <p><strong>Aims:</strong> The study was accomplished for assessing the impact of agar oil production on livelihood improvement of its producers.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> This article is a socioeconomic study and placed on empirical analysis. It conducted the socioeconomic factors which had an impact on the livelihood improvement of agar oil producers.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> The study was conducted at Barlekha Upazilla of Maulvibazar District of Bangladesh. The study period was mid-June to mid-September/2017.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> The relevant data were collected from the agar oil producers of Maulvibazar District, Bangladesh. Household having at least one factory were included for the study. A total of 60 households among 180 household were selected as sample. Field survey data were collected through face to face interviewing of the respondents using a structured questionnaire through simple random sampling. After cleaning and correcting the data Microsoft Excel and Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) were used for analyzing the data.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The average family size was found 10.17 (small: 10%; medium: 45% and large: 45%) and majority (63.3%) belongs to the graduation level, meaning having 16.0 years of education. The results of the regression model revealed that amount of annual income, credit access of household, membership of an organization had the positive impact and an increasing the age of household head had a negative effect on livelihood improvement. Instead of having different constraints, the major problems faced by the producers in agar oil production were lack of industrial gas connection and lack of modern laboratory.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In order to enrich the livelihood improvement of agar oil producer’s industrial gas connection, modern laboratory and better credit services should be well executed by different government and non-government organization.</p> 2019-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The State, Society and Political Relationships of Northern Nigerian Youths in the Fourth Republic (1999-2019) 2019-11-22T08:07:35+00:00 Musa Kabir Umar Sulaiman Abdullahi Bambale <p>The paper examined the tribulations and the effects of how the political class bastardized and corruptly mishandled the democratic politics of northern Nigeria which in effect criminalized the mindset of the youth since the inception of the Fourth Republic in May 1999. The pointers of these youths' criminalities are seen in activities such as Boko Haram, kidnapping, armed robbery, armed banditry, cattle-rustling, political thuggery and gangsterism among others. These are the current challenges confronting entire northern Nigeria because of the neglect, abandonment, and misgovernance, particularly of the rural areas. The objective of the paper sought to analyze the challenging effects of the northern youths' political misfortunes which caused the northern region to be in a serious security dilemma. Thus, the paper employed historical analysis using a secondary source of data to discuss and analysed how the Nigerian youths were relegated to mere evil political tools by the politicians over the years. It found out that the youth have been in a deplorable condition and had become ready-made instruments of the politicians to commit electoral crimes. Thus, they have become vulnerable to any anti-social conduct that can easily get them to quick and fast monetary advantages or religious extremism. The paper lastly suggests that the condition of these youth must be improved to deal with emerging social threats. This can be done by investing adequately in education, social services, infrastructural facilities and instantaneous provision of employment opportunities.</p> 2019-10-12T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Meaning of Public Information Openness Communication in Village Government of Central Java 2019-11-22T08:07:35+00:00 Agus Triyono Ahmad Sihabudin Dewi Widowati <p>Village government as one of the public institutions must implement public information openness on all its activities based on Law no.14 Year 2008 concerning public information openness and Village Law No. 6 Year 2014. This study used cognitive dissonance theory to analyze the meaning of public information openness on village government officials in Central Java. This research aimed at finding the meaning of messages conveyed by the village government about public information openness. Moreover, this research used qualitative approach through case study method. In addition, research data are obtained through interviews, focus group discussions and observations. Meanwhile, post positivism paradigm was used to analyze all the findings of this study. The findings of this study indicate that human resources working in the village government have not completely understood the meaning of information openness. This may due to a lack of socialization and information on public information openness. Many of them interpreted it differently. Thus, there were several village officials conducting a violation in information openness.</p> 2019-10-26T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Print Culture in the Sultanate of Riau-Lingga during the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries 2019-11-22T08:07:34+00:00 Hafiz Zakariya Wiwin Oktasari <p>Print empowers ways of communicating an idea. In fact, in many ways, it could promote democratization of an individual’s expression, which sometimes can be uncontrollable and even anarchic. Though printing has powerful impact on society; it has been ignored in mainstream scholarship. Existing studies about printing press and its impact on the Malay world are limited. It is surprisingly marginalized in the mainstream scholarship despite the fact that history actually bears witness that printing played an important role in the past. Thus, this article discusses the print culture in the Malay world with special reference to the Kingdom of Riau-Lingga. It begins by describing the techniques of printing especially lithography and typography used in the Malay world.&nbsp; It also explains the advent of the print technology in the Dutch East Indies in general and Riau in particular, and how the print culture gradually replaced manuscript in knowledge transmission during the time of Raja Ali Haji. Subsequently, it describes how the Rushdiah Club utilized this technology during the end of the 19<sup>th</sup> century in Riau-Lingga.</p> 2019-11-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##