Main Article Content
Pupils learn music through many and different ways. Various methods, approaches and strategies of teaching are described in the literature. Teaching music is an art and activity which require teachers to use a combination or an integration of some of these methods and strategies to provide effective learning experiences to pupils. The aim of this article is to present overviews of some general approaches and strategies of teaching music based on the constructivist theory of teaching in the primary school. It will cover the lecture, demonstration and modelling, discovery, video showing, field trip, role-play, project, questioning technique, assignment, and the discovery methods of teaching. The paper will also highlight factors that determine the selection of a teaching method for a particular lesson and finally, stages in teaching.
Flolu J, Amuah R. An introduction to music education in Ghana for universities and colleges. Accra, Ghana: Black Mask Ltd; 2003.
Jackman HL. Early childhood curriculum: A child’s connection to the world (3rd Ed). Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning; 2005.
Button S. Music teachers perceptions for effective teaching. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education. 2010;183:25-38..
Kim JS. The effects of a constructivist teaching approach on student academic achievement, self-concept, and learning strategies. Asian Pacific Education Review. 2005;6(1):7-19.
Cohen L, Manion L, Morrison K, Wyse D. A guide to teaching practice (5th Ed). London, England: Routledge; 2010.
Tawiah A. et al. National teachers’ standards and teachers education curriculum framework for Ghana. Accra, Ghana: Ministry of Education; 2016.
Aldridge J, M Barry FJ Mokgoko SP. Using teacher action research to promote constructivism learning environment in South Africa. South African Journal of Education. 2004;24(4):245-253.
Kalpana T. A constructivist perspective on teaching and learning: A conceptual framework. International Research Journal of Social Sciences. 2014;3(1):27-29.
Owusu-Banahene NO. Educational psychology. Kumasi, Ghana: Nacro Printing Works; 2008.
Semmar Y, Al-Thani T. Piagetian and vygotskian approaches to cognitive development in the kindergarten classroom. Journal of Educational and Developmental Psychology. 2015;5(2):1-7.
Blake B, Pope T. Developmental psychology: Incorporating piaget’s and vygotsky theories in classroom. Journal of Cross-Disciplinary Perspective Education. 2008;1(1):56-67.
Thakur K. A constructivist perspective on teaching and learning: A conceptual framework. Research Journal on Social Sciences. 2014;3(1):27-29.
Alam M. Constructivism: A paradigm shift from teacher centered to student centered approach. The International Journal of Indian Psychology. 2016;4(1):51-59.
Sematwa EMW. Piaget’s theory of intellectual development and its implication for instructional management at pre-secondary school level. Educational Research and Reviews. 2010;5(7):366-371.
Moore KD, Hanson J. Effective strategies of teaching in K-8 classroom. Los Angeles, CA: Sage; 2012.
Gebhard, S. Vygotsky and the zone of proximal development; 2008.
Turk MC. The relevance and implication of vygotsky’s social culture theory in second language classroom. ARECLS. 2008;5: L244-262.
Marmah AA. Students’ perception about the lecture as a method of teaching in tertiary institutions. Views of students from college of technology education, Kumasi. International Journal of Education and Research. 2014;2(6):601-612.
Ekeyi DN. Effect of demonstration method of teaching on students’ achievement in agricultural science. World Journal of Education. 2013;3(6):1-7.
Kaur G. Study and analysis of lecture model of teaching. International Journal of Educational Planning and Administration. 2011;1(1):9-13.
Amuah RI, Adum-Attah K. Music and dance for basic school teachers. Cape Coast, Ghana: Hampton Press; 2016.
Ramadhan N, Surya E. The implementation of demonstration method to increase students’ ability in operating multiple numbers by using concrete objects. International Journal of Sciences: Basic Applied Research. 2017;34(2):62-68.
Salisu A, Ransom EN. The role of modelling towards impacting quality education. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences. 2014;33:54-61.
Mc Carthy M. et al. Better practice in music education (vol. II). Baltimore, MD: Maryland Department of Education; 2003.
Larson BE. Classroom discussion: A method of instruction and a curriculum outcome. Teaching and Teacher Education. 2000;16:661-677.
Witherspoon M, Sykes G, Bell C. Leading a classroom discussion: Definition, supportive evidence, and measurement of the ETS national observational teaching examination assessment service (research memorandum No. RM-16-09). princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service; 2016.
Dzansi MP. Some manifestations of Ghanaian indigenous culture in children’s singing games. International Journal of Education & the Arts. 2002;3:7.
Dzansi M. Playground music pedagogy of Ghanaian children. Research Studies in Music Education. 2004;22:83- 92.
Essa EL. Introduction to early childhood education (4th Ed). Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning; 2003.
Isiaka B. Effectiveness of videos as an instructional medium in teaching rural children agricultural and environmental services. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology. 2007;3(3): 105-114
Ljubojevic M, Vaskovic V, Stankovic S, Vaskovic J. Using supplementary video in multimedia instruction as a teaching tool to increase efficiency of learning and quality of experience. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. 2014;15(3):275-291.
Reece I, Walker S. Teaching training and learning: A Practical Guide (2nd Ed). Sunderland, England: Business Education Publishing Ltd; 1994.
Shakil AF, Faizi W, Hafeez S. The need and importance of field trips at higher level in Karachi, Pakistan. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 2011;2(1):1- 16.
Rashid S, Qaisar S. Role play: A productive teaching strategy to promote critical thinking. Bulletin of Education and Research. 2017;39(2):197- 213.
Countryman J. Missteps, flaws and morphings in children’s musical play: Snapshots from school playgrounds. Research Studies in Music Education. 2014;36(1):3-18.
Ulrich C. John dewey and the project-based learning: Landmark for nowadays Romanian education. Journal of Educational Sciences and Psychology. 2016;6(1B):54-60.
Smieszek M. The project method as a form of teaching people with disabilities. European Journal of Educational and Social Sciences. 2018;3(1): 49-56.
Sola AO, Ojo OE. Effects of project, inquiry and lecture-demonstration teaching methods on senior secondary students’ achievement in separation of mixtures practical test. Educational Research and Review. 2007;2(6):124- 132.
Koomson AK et al. (n. d.). General principles and methods of teaching. Cape Coast, Ghana: Centre for Continuing Education, University of Cape Coast; 2014.
Alorvor LK. Effective teaching strategies for teachers (3rd Ed). Accra, Ghana: Spirit, Soul and Body; 2012.
Baiden SO, Amofa D. Basic training and community practices for the teacher. Accra, Ghana: Ghana Ministry of Education, Science and Sports; 2008.
Rowsell C, Vinden D. Jolly Music. Chigwell, England: Jolly Learning Ltd; 2016.
Attaway K. The kodály method and the levels of biblical learning: Teaching theology and hymns to children. Honours Thesis. 2017; 244.
Watson V. Every you need to know about teaching your young child music; 2012.
Trinka J. (n. d). The Kodály approach; 2020.
Cary DG. Kodály and Orff: A comparison of two approaches in early music education. ZKU Journal of Social Sciences. 2012;8(15):179-194.
Ababio BT. Nature of teaching: What teachers need to know and do. International Journal for Innovative Education and Research. 2013;1(3):37- 48.