Heads of School and Teaching Commitment in Public Secondary Schools in Kagera Region, Tanzania

Archard Kashamba *

Jenerali David Musuguri Secondary School, Tanzania.

Coletha C. Ngirwa

The Open University of Tanzania (OUT), Tanzania.

Maulid Maulid

The Open University of Tanzania (OUT), Tanzania.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Teaching commitment plays a pivotal role in the success of any education system. In vein, leadership behaviours by heads of schools is instrumental in shaping the teaching commitment. This study aims to examine the relationship between supervisory practices of heads of schools (HoS Practices) and teachers’ commitment within public secondary schools in Kagera Region, Tanzania. The study was grounded from transformational leadership theory. The study used positivism research paradigm and cross-sectional research design. The results has consistently demonstrated a strong connection between instructional leadership and teachers’ commitment. In the context of Kagera Region, which has witnessed a decline in various aspects of education and human development, resulting in increased poverty, this quantitative case study was conducted to investigate the relationship between the HoS Practices and teachers’ commitment. The data were collected through questionnaires from a sample of 240 teachers working across 80 public secondary schools in Kagera Region. Statistical regression analysis and descriptive statistics were used. Primarily, it was found that only about 52.5% of the variance in teacher commitment can be explained by the HoS Practices. This finding raises important questions regarding teacher efficacy and leadership efficacy within Kagera Region's public secondary schools. This research contributes to the existing literature by shedding light on the critical role of heads of schools in enhancing teachers’ devotion to teaching activities. The results underline the need for targeted interventions aimed at improving instructional leadership practices to boost teacher commitment, finally improving the overall quality of education in Kagera Region.

Keywords: Teacher commitment, instructional leadership, teacher efficacy, leadership efficacy

How to Cite

Kashamba , Archard, Coletha C. Ngirwa, and Maulid Maulid. 2024. “Heads of School and Teaching Commitment in Public Secondary Schools in Kagera Region, Tanzania”. Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences 22 (7):12-22. https://doi.org/10.9734/arjass/2024/v22i7546.


Download data is not yet available.


Tshewang, Tshewang, and Dem Yanki. Transformational Leadership Behaviors of School Principals: A Quantitative Research Based on Teachers’ Perceptions, under Phuentsholing Municipal, Chukha District, Bhutan. Journal of Education, Society and Behavioural Science 2023;36 (9):58-69. Available:https://doi.org/10.9734/jesbs/2023/v36i91258.

Gordo, Rita D. Professional Knowledge and Organizational Commitment of Faculty Members Handling Science Subjects in the University of Eastern Philippines. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies. 2021;22(4):17-25. Availble:https://doi.org/10.9734/ajess/2021/v22i430539.

Fresko B, Kfir D, Nasser F. Predicting teacher commitment. Teaching and teacher education. 1997;13(4):429-38.

Coladarci T. Teachers' sense of efficacy and commitment to teaching. The Journal of experimental education. 1992;60(4):323-37.

Agih AA. Effective school management and supervision: Imperative for quality education service delivery. African Research Review. 2015;9(3):62-74. DOI: 10.4314/afrrev.v9i3.6.

Eisenberg J, Johnson SK, Kroege K. Leadership development for educators: An integrated model for training leaders. Routledge; 2019. DOI: 10.4324/9780429457072

Eisenberg J, Post C, DiTomaso N. Win at Work by Communicating Effectively Every Time; Team Dispersion and Performance: The Role of Team Communication and Transformational Leadership. Small Group Research. 2019;50(3).DOI: 10.1177/1046496419827376

Urio PJ. Supervision of Instructional Programmes for Improving Students' Performance in Secondary Schools in Tanzania. Tanzanian Journal of Education. 2023;36(14), 90-103.

Bass BM. Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press; 1985.

Spillane JP, Halverson R, Diamond JB. Towards a theory of leadership practice: A distributed perspective. Journal of Curriculum Studies. 2004;36(1):3-34. DOI: 10.1080/0022027032000106726

Greenleaf RK. The servant as leader. Westfield, IN: Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership; 1970.

Betweli O. The Nature of Teacher Professional Misconduct in Tanzanian Public Primary Schools: The Case of Sumbawanga Municipal and Rural Districts; 2013.

Heifetz RA, Linsky M. Leadership on the line: Staying alive through the dangers of leading. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press.International Journal of Education. 2002;5(1). DOI: 10.5296/ije.v5i1.3291

Pont B, Nusche D, Moorman H. Improving school leadership, Policy and practice. OECD; 2008;1. DOI: 10.1787/9789264044715-en

Noureen G, Arshad R, Fakhar N. School leadership and its impact on teacher commitment: An empirical study. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. 2020;48(5):903-919. DOI: 10.1177/1741143219836680

Amanchukwu RN, Stanley GJ, Ololube NP. A review of leadership theories, principles and styles and their relevance to educational management. Management. 2015;5(1):6-14. DOI: 10.5923/j.mm.20150501.02

Masao HM. An Assessment of Secondary Schools’ Head Teachers Effective; 2017.

Harris A. School leadership: A complex, dynamic and contested concept. Educational Management Administration & Leadership. 2018;46(1):6-21. DOI: 10.1177/1741143217701559

Leithwood K, Harris A, Strauss T. Educational leadership: Context, strategy and collaboration. Routledge; 2022. DOI: 10.4324/9780429321861

Day C, Leithwood K. Successful school leadership. Springer; 2017. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-28614-1

Harris A, Jones M. The impact of school leadership on teacher morale and student outcomes: A meta-analytic review. Educational Leadership Review. 2023;24 (2):45-63. DOI: 10.1080/13632434.2022.2014465

Michael J, Sebanz N, Knoblich G. The sense of commitment: A minimal approach. Frontiers in psychology. 2016;6. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01968

Mart CT. A passionate teacher: Teacher commitment and dedication to student learning. International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development. 2013;2(1):437-442.

ISSN: 2226-6348

Altun M. The Effects of Teacher Commitment on Student Achievement: A Case Study in Iraq. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences. 2017;7(11):417. DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v7-i11/3475

Firestone WA, Pennell JR. Teacher commitment, working conditions, and differential incentive policies. Review of Educational Research. 1993;63(4):489-525. DOI: 10.3102/00346543063004489

Edition E. The school principal as leader: Guiding schools to better teaching and education service delivery. African Research Review. 2013;9(3):62-74. DOI: 10.4314/afrrev.v9i3.6

Vaillant D. School leadership, trends in policies and practices, and improvement in the quality of education. Education Policy Analysis Archives. 2015;23:1-35. DOI:10.14507/epaa.v23.1861

Khumalo SS. The Role of Transformational School Leadership in Promoting Teacher Commitment: An Antecedent for Sustainable Development in South Africa. Discourse and Communication for Sustainable Education. 2019;10(2):22–32. DOI: 10.2478/dcse-2019-0015

Bush T. Educational leadership and management: Theory, policy, and practice. South African Journal of Education. 2007; 27(3):391-406.

Schleicher A. Preparing teachers and developing school leaders for the 21st century: Lessons from around the world. OECD Publishing; 2012. DOI: 10.1787/9789264174559-en.

Day C, Gu Q, Sammons P. The Impact of Leadership on Student Outcomes: How Successful School Leaders Use Transformational and Instructional Strategies to Make a Difference. Educational Administration Quarterly. 2016;52:221-258. DOI: 10.1177/0013161X15616863

Ngirwa C. Leadership and organizational change: A study in Tanzanian universities. PhD Thesis, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium. LIRIAS1963458; 2013

Cansoy R, Parlar, H, Polatcan M. Collective teacher efficacy as a mediator in the Change: A study in Tanzanian Universities; 2020.


Stone-Johnson C, Patrizio K. Teachers’ perspective on leadership: Interactions and influences. International Journal of Educational Management. 2014;28(4):474-490. DOI: 10.1108/IJEM-08-2013-0128

Podsakoff PM, MacKenzie SB, Moorman RH, Fetter R. Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers' trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly. 1990;1(2):107-142. DOI: 10.1016/1048-9843(90)90009-7

Yukl G. 2010 Leadership in organizations (7th ed). Upper Saddle River, N.J. London; 1999.

Creswell JW, Creswell JD. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications; 2017. DOI: 10.4135/9781506386768

Cohen L, Manion L, Morrison K. Research methods in education. Routledge; 2017. DOI: 10.4324/9781315456531

Yin RK. Case study research: Design and methods (5th Ed.). Los Angeles, CA: SAGE; 2014.

Yin RK. Case study research and applications: Design and methods. Sage publications; 2018. DOI: 10.4135/9781506336168

Merriam SB, Tisdell EJ. Qualitative Research: A Guide to Design and Implementation (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass; 2016.

Babbie E, Mouton J. The practice of social research. Oxford University Press; 2018. DOI:10.1093/he/9780198820070.001.0001

Carless SA, Wearing AJ, Mann L. A short measure of transformational leadership. Journal of Business and Psychology. 2000;14:389-405. DOI: 10.1023/A:1022991115523

Mwamatandala A, Muneja MS. Effect of school management on teachers’ commitment: A case of government secondary schools in Arusha City, Tanzania. East African Journal of Education and Social Sciences (EAJESS). 2020;1(3):87-96. DOI: 10.1080/13603124.2019.1708470

Leithwood K, Harris A, Strauss, T. Leading schools in challenging times: A review of the research evidence. School Leadership & Management. 2022;42(1):6-23. DOI: 10.1080/13632434.2021.1994442

Akter A, Tabassum S. Exploring Head Teachers’ Leadership Training in Government Primary School of Dhaka City: Challenges and Possibilities for Implementation. North American Academic Research (NAAR) Journal. 2021;4(1):259-273. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4526455

Setia MS. Methodology Series Module 3: Cross-sectional Studies. Indian Journal of Dermatology. 2016;61(3):261-264. DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.182410