Open Access Data Article

Institutional Governance Reforms: Examining the Case of ECOWAS

Araniyar C. Isukul, John J. Chizea

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2016/29336

In the last two decades, several member countries of the Economic Communities of West African States (ECOWAS) have put in place several institutional reforms aimed at improving corporate governance. It had been anticipated that the institutionalization of democracy would bring forth several expected benefits such as good governance, strengthen existing institutions, enhance corporate governance practices, and overall, improve the general welfare of the citizenry. This research uses data from World Bank Governance Indicators for all ECOWAS countries, and examines the quality of institutional governance from 1996 to 2012. The findings of this research show that the embracing of democratic culture has not significantly improved the quality of institutional governance of many ECOWAS countries. Rather, the data reveals that there has been an increasing trend of political instability and violence in some of the ECOWAS countries such as Guinea Bissau, Cote d’Ivoire, Nigeria, Senegal, Gambia, and Togo. In addition, regulatory quality and governance effectiveness for many ECOWAS countries are either declining or at best stagnated. Ceremonial institutional conformity tends to be the norm rather than the exception. More importantly, restraining of press freedom and institutionalized corruption have significantly negatively influenced the quality of corporate governance practices in the region. Therefore, it is important to strengthen the electoral institutions to ensure free and fair elections that will reduce political violence and enhance political stability and by so doing strengthen corporate governance practices.


Open Access Original Research Article

Statistical Analysis of Religious Population in Asian Countries

M. Shafiqur Rahman

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2016/29897

Asian history and culture have been influenced by a number of religions i.e. Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Christianism, Sikhism, Shamanism, etc. These traditions offer spiritual guidelines but also set moral and ethical standards for the daily life of the people in Asian countries. The main purpose of this study is to find out, how Asian religious population is changing over time? Religious population data for different census years have been collected from the website of Asian countries. As population varies over time, religious population data is time series data. There are mainly four types of variations observed in time series data namely seasonal variation, cyclical variation, trend and irregular or random variation. Time series analysis and analysis of variance have been applied for analyzing the data. It is observed that percentages of some religious groups are decreasing and for some religious group are increasing gradually. Also the percentages of some religious groups become stagnant in the sense that no significant change.


Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges to Incremental Housing Development in Ibadan Municipality, Nigeria

Gideon Oluwaseyi Adeyeni, Lasun Mykail Olayiwola, Gbenga John Oladehinde

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2016/28871

Aim: This study examined challenges to incremental housing development in Ibadan municipality with a view to informing policy that could enhance the progressive building process.

Methodology: Data were obtained through questionnaire administration on incremental housing developers in the study area. The sampling procedure involved the stratification of the study area into high density, medium density and low density residential areas. Ten residential areas were randomly selected from the high density and medium density residential areas which are basically inhabited by the low and middle income class - who are the major practitioners of incremental housing development. One of every three incremental building was sampled after the random selection of the first building. A total of 305 incremental houses were sampled of the 915 identified during pilot survey.

Results: The study revealed that lack of accessibility to finance is the most important difficulty against the incremental housing development process, while cost of building materials, land accessibility for house construction and approval of building plans were also highly rated as challenges. Housing finance had the highest RAI of 4.91, 4.90 and 4.92 in the whole study area, high density and medium density residential areas respectively. On the other hand, housing appearance at the earlier stage of incremental construction had the lowest RAI of 2.21, 2.12 and 2.32 in the whole study area, high density and medium density residential areas respectively.

Conclusion: The study concluded that non-availability of proper finance arrangements and policy support for the low and middle income housing needs are the major challenges confronting incremental housing development in the study area.


Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Government Expenditure and Economic Growth in Nigeria: Application of Co integration Methodology

Odo Stephen Idenyi, Nwachukwu Johnson Obinna, E. Agbi Promise, Okoro Thomas Ogbonnaya

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2016/29486

This study analyzed the long run relationship between government expenditure and economic growth in Nigeria from 1980 – 2015 using the Johansen co integration technique, Error correction mechanism and Pair wise Granger causality econometric tool of analysis. The results of the study indicate negative relationship among government capital expenditure, unemployment and economic growth. A positive correlation was found among government recurrent expenditure, inflation and economic growth. The results showed unidirectional causality running from GKEX to gross domestic product and bi directional causality from GREX to gross domestic product. The causality result also indicated a unidirectional causality running from unemployment to RLGDP and government capital expenditure to unemployment. The authors recommends that the Nigerian government should ensure the full implementation of her minimum wage law across states and private sectors of the economy to take full advantage of the impact of salaries and wages in the performance of the economy. Secondly, efforts should also be made to address all negative issues associated with full implementation of capital projects in the economy beginning with strengthening the procurement process, adequate oversight function by the legislative arm and prosecution of fraudulent officers involved in any form of corrupt practices.


Open Access Review Article

Online Shopping Systems in Nigeria: Evolution, Trend and Prospects

J. M. O. Gabriel, T. D. Ogbuigwe, L. U. Ahiauzu

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2016/29170

This paper is a literary reflection of online shopping systems in Nigeria, its history, trends and prospects. The paper recognized online shopping systems as the collection of tools and telecommunication elements that enables the shopping behavior of initiating and completing business transactions without or with minimal direct human to human contact. The paper observed that this style of shopping has reached advance stage in developed climes, but still at infancy in most third world countries; including Nigeria. The Internet has made online shopping not only a possibility but also a huge success contributing to economies around the globe. The paper pinpointed the role of trust in the integrity of online shopping and advocated the need to build trust in the system because the more reliable consumers perceive a business domain to be, the more willing they are to transact there in. the paper also suggests that vendors should introduce online reviews of their products and encourage customers who have bought and used a product to honestly share their experiences on the product page as a way to create improved customer experiences.