Open Access Minireview Article

Authentic Tibetan Tantric Buddhism and Its Controversial Terma Tradition: A Review

John Z. G. Ma

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2016/29736

This short commentary reviews, on the one hand, the authentic formation and development of Tibetan Tantric Buddhism, an innovative branch that is featured by the transformation of negative emotions (NEs) to a valuable vehicle to reach the enlightenment of consciousness via achieving three different levels of kayas by experiencing three-stage practices; on the other hand, its problematic Terma tradition that claims to make use of six different ways in the transmissions of Buddhist teachings generation after generation. Both religious and scientific critiques are presented to this tradition in view of several aspects like the religious doctrine authenticity, historical veracity, and the formation of the tradition.


Open Access Minireview Article

Nine Buddhist Consciousnesses and Four Psychological Forces: A Review

John Z. G. Ma

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2016/29873

This article reviews the ancient Buddhist doctrine of consciousness and its concordance with the psychological heritage of modern science. Firstly, it introduces the nine consciousnesses of Buddhist philosophy, namely, five sensory consciousnesses, plus Mano, Manas, Alaya, and Amala consciousnesses. Secondly, it summarizes the development of the four psychological forces, i.e., Watson’s behaviorism, Freudian psychoanalysis, Jung’s unconscious, and Grof’s transpersonal psychology. Finally, it suggests that the last four consciousnesses are equivalent to the four forces, respectively.


Open Access Original Research Article

Natural Resources Exploitation and Utilization in Imo State, Nigeria: The Economic and Environmental Perspective

Chibo Christian Nnamdi, Onuha Titus Nnadozie

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2016/28448

This research was carried out in six Local Government Areas of Imo state, Nigeria. Natural resources endowment of any area in the world when properly harnessed can act as a catalyst to the economic life of the area. In an effort to harness these resources, the environment of the area is also affected especially when harnessed without due consideration for the effect on the environment. This research examines various resources exploited, harnessed and utilized from various locations within the study area of Imo state, Nigeria. The methods of exploitation are also examined with the view of ascertaining how they impact on economic life of the people living within these areas, as well as the environment where exploitation takes place. Both primary and secondary data were employed for this research. Questionnaires and oral interview were instruments used for primary data generation. Five hundred and fifty six copies of the questionnaire were distributed to communities systematically sampled from 6 local government areas out of the 27 local government areas of Imo state. Data generated were presented in frequency tables and as percentages. Two hypotheses were tested. Inferential statistics of correlation analysis and Chi Square were used to test the hypotheses. One of the hypotheses sought to know if there is a relationship between methods of natural resources exploitation and environmental deterioration in the state. The result obtained showed that natural resources in the study area have contributed positively to the economic life of the people. It was also observed that various resources exploitation methods have created a lot of problems, ranging from environmental, economic, health to socio-cultural. Most of these resources are exploited largely using rudimentary methods without any recourse to its impact on the environment. There are no environmental impact assessments (EIA) to determine positive and adverse environmental and socio-economic impacts, and where mitigation is possible, before these resources are harnessed. The research thereby recommends among others, controlled resource exploitation and environmental impact assessment before these resources are harnessed.


Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Relationship between Tourist Motivation, Satisfaction and Loyalty for China Special Theme Tourism

Zhuangyu Li, Abdur Rehman, Banghong Zhao, Jianqiang Peng

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2016/30057

China special theme tourism (CSTT) is called Red Tourism in China. It is new theme tourism, formally proposed in 2004. In December 2005, the CPC Central Committee and State Council issued the "2004-2010 National Red Tourism Development Plan" where Red Tourism was officially planned and implemented. Red tourism, as a new kind of thematic tourism, refers to the tourism activities that regard the revolution memorials, monuments as well as the revolutionary spirit established after 1921 and the memorial marker during the period of revolutionary war by the Communist Party of China as the carrier; the revolutionary history, the deeds and the spirit it contains are the theme. Red tourism involves organizing the activities of tourists to include visits, to study the revolutionary spirit, to receive education on revolutionary traditions and to raise tourists’ spirits, relax and enhance their experience.

This paper use motivation factor and investigates CSTT satisfaction and their correlation with tourists’ satisfaction and loyalty. Quantitative methodology is adopted for this research which includes the collection of data in the cases-Yan’an (N=493), linear regression is also used in order to test the hypothesis by following the hypothesis testing model. The regression equation and associated statistics are used to discover which factors have a profound impact upon satisfaction in CSTT. According to the results of this empirical study, it has been found that four parts main relationships existed in CSTT motivations which include satisfaction, therefore, a relationship model has been built. Therefore, it is apparent from this finding that destination marketers should customize their marketing plans by using a different communication mix with a unique promotional tool through employing a local celebrity, thus giving them an inherent competitive advantage. Finally, the study discusses the contributions of the research and makes recommendations for the CSTT and for further research.


Open Access Original Research Article

An Exploration of Integrating Information Communication and Technology into Mathematics Teacher Education Programme

Sunzuma Gladys, Zezekwa Nicholas

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2016/29800

This study investigated the integration of ICT into mathematics teacher education programme at Mashonaland Orriekpen University (MOU), Mashonaland Central Region, in Zimbabwe for one year. Five trainee mathematics teachers participated in this study. The trainee mathematics teachers were purposively sampled to complete a self -administered questionnaire. The questionnaire sought their views on how ICT is being used and incorporated in the teacher preparation programme to enhance their teaching skills. Data were also obtained from documents. The documents focused on the relevance of ICT courses offered to the trainee teachers in the teaching and learning of mathematics. The major research findings were that the ICT oriented courses offered at the MOU were not mathematically aligned and less emphasis was given to application of ICT usage in the mathematics classroom. It is recommended that there is need for an ongoing training for the lecturers especially on ICT integration in mathematics.