Open Access Original Research Article

What Role for Remittances in Farm Inputs Expenditure among Paddy Farming Households? A Case Study of Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

John Msinde, Farida Salehe

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/31577

Migration and remittance have a potential to enhance farm intensification through spending on essential farm inputs and thus apparently improving farm production for liquidity constrained rural farming households. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of remittance derived from rural out-migrants on the expenditure on farm inputs using paddy dominated farming households of Kilombero Valley, Tanzania, as a case study. A questionnaire was used to collect data among 309 randomly selected households. The tobit model that considers cornered observations was used to assess the effect of migration and remittances on input expenditure. A T test was conducted to compare differences in input spending between migratory and non migratory households. Results show that remittances overcome inputs market failure as it provides cash that rural households use to purchase essential farm inputs. However, the results based on the T test revealed that there is no significant difference in terms of spending on hired labour (as one of a farm input) between migratory and non migratory households. The positive income effects of remittances outweigh lost-labour effects. It is thus recommended that migration should be encouraged through the growth of economy and thus the link between rural and urban areas should be strengthened.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigating the Impact of Oil Export on Gross Capital Formation in Nigeria

Udude Celina Chinyere, Odo Stephen Idenyi, Ituma Sunday Okpoto, Elom- Obed Ozioma Favour

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/32605

This study examined impact of oil export on gross capital formation in Nigeria for the period of 1980- 2015. The study specified the model as gross capital formation (GCF) being a function of oil export (OEX), real gross domestic product (RGDP) and exchange rate. The pre test carried out in the study are unit root test and co integration test while VECM econometric test was used to test the impact of the explanatory variables on the dependent variable and the data used are sourced from central bank of Nigeria bulletin 2014. Based on the above stated econometric procedure, the study found out that: (i) oil export inversely and significantly impacts gross capital formation in Nigeria both in long run and short run within the period under review.(ii) real gross domestic product impacts gross capital formation in Nigeria in the long run during  the study time. (iii) There is causal relationship existing between dependent variable and explanatory variables in Nigeria. The study concludes that oil export has not contributed to growth in gross capital formation in Nigeria. Based on the findings above the study recommend that government should legalize the operations of local (illegal) refineries operating in Nigeria and also make our local refineries to operate at  full capacity so that it will lead  to availability of refined products for domestic consumption and consequently discourage the importation of refined product from abroad thereby saving the country huge foreign exchange hitherto used for importation, to enable the revenue generated from oil export to be used for investment purposes that will boost the gross capital formation of the country which will in turn lead to economic growth.

 

Open Access Review Article

The Pursuit of Good Governance and the Anti-Financial Corruption Blitz in Nigeria: A Study of the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) (2003-2016)

Otu Offiong Duke, Dickson David Agbaji

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/32115

The study examines the extent to which the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) has been able to tackle financial corruption and its gangrenous effects in Nigeria between 2003 and 2016. The study relied on systematic qualitative content analysis of secondary sources of data, and the strain theory was adopted as the tool of analysis for the study. A cursory thrust into the political culture of corruption in Nigeria’s history revealed that even with the establishment of anti-graft agencies and legislations by the distinct administrations, financial corruption has, nevertheless, continued to wax stronger and escalate like wildfire. The paper argues that corruption has been perpetrated with impunity, that there exists a porous intelligence base in the pursuit of financial corruption cases, that unnecessary politicking by the government and the elites limits the EFCC’s effectiveness, and that the existence of the immunity clause, plea bargain and judicial redtapism and misconducts short-changes the pursuit of the rule of law and the delivery of justice which, in turn, hamper on the anti-graft war of the EFCC. The paper, therefore, recommends the pursuit of good governance and genuine political will in the anti-graft war, incorporation of a strong scientific base in the investigation and persecution of financial corruption cases, and granting the EFCC autonomy to operate freely but under specific legal codes.

Open Access Review Article

Maintaining Peace and Security in Sub-Saharan Africa – the Tragic Connection between Corruption, Bad Governance and Criminality

Adetoro Rasheed Adenrele

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/32148

The state of peace and security in the Sub-Saharan region of Africa is worrisome. This paper therefore submitted that the fragile nature of security and peace in Africa is a factor of corruption, poor governance and criminality. It is however recommended that genuine soul cleansing, accountable and participatory governance, education-for-peace, serious collective anti-corruption crusade and Integrated African Regional Surveillance (ARS) would go a long way to checkmate the current high rate of instability in the region.

 

Open Access Review Article

Modern Perspectives on Environmentalism: Ecocentrism and Technocentrism in the Nigerian Context

Faisal C. Emetumah

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/32821

The evolution of environmentalism in the 21st century has taken an anthropocentric viewpoint despite global calls for instituting sustainable development which should provide the required equilibrium. Therefore, environmentalism in developing countries like Nigeria is quite an ethical dilemma between protecting the environment and meeting their developmental needs. While ecocentrism points out the relevance and intrinsic value of ecological entities, technocentrism tries to demonstrate that scientific and technological advancements will proffer the required solutions. Nevertheless, holistic global policy frameworks provide feasible institutional directions for individual countries to follow. Conclusively, humanity needs to harness the positives from both ecocentrism and technocentrism as no singular perspective can resolve environmental issues in entirety. The paper recommends more awareness creation, holistic environmental policy design and mechanisms to reduce the cost of ‘green’ technologies.