Open Access Short Research Article

An Assessment of the Ecotourism Potential of Gashaka Gumti National Park in Nigeria

E. D. Oruonye, M. Y. Ahmed, Garba A. Hajara, R. J. Danjuma

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/33293

National parks have been established in Nigeria to protect, preserve, conserve and manage representative samples of indigenous flora and fauna. This is intended to among other reasons promote ecotourism development in the country. Gashaka Gumti National Park (GGNP) is one of the National parks in Nigeria (the largest in the country) located in the northeast part of the country. This study examined the ecotourism potentials of GGNP. Field observation, interview and questionnaires were used to elicit information from the staff of (GGNP), tourist and enclave communities within the park. Findings from the study show that in past decade (between 2005 – 2015), the park received 6,713 local and 612 international tourists. 33% of the international tourists were from Britain. 269 people (35 indigene and 28 non-indigene) were directly employed by GGNP. About ₦44m ($144,000) was generated as revenue in the park within this period. The comparatively low patronage to the park by both local and international tourists is attributable to the remote location and poor accessibility within the park. The study findings revealed that the huge ecotourism potentials of the park are under-utilized at the moment. Some of the challenges include poor funding, lack of adequate publicity, inadequate infrastructure and recreational facility and activities of poachers. The study recommends improvements in road network to and within the Park and stiffer sanctions to curb poaching.

Open Access Short Research Article

Social Effects of Crude Oil Production Activities in Egbema, Imo State, Nigeria

I. E. Osumgborogwu, F. C. Okoro, I. J. Oduaro

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/33164

Literature abounds on the economic and environmental effects of crude oil production activities in the oil producing communities of Nigeria. Some of these effects include reduction in economic and agricultural activities due to oil spillage and gas flaring as well as health challenges. While efforts are being made to curtail some of these problems, sufficient attention has not been paid in published literature to the social dimension of crude oil production in Nigeria. This study thus sets out to assess social effects of crude oil exploration and extraction activities in some selected communities in Egbema of Imo State. To achieve this, 150 copies of well-structured questionnaire were distributed to residents of the study area. Of this number, 141 copies were correctly filled and returned, thus, representing 94 percent of respondents. Ten oral interviews were also conducted with identified heads of households. The results as presented in Tables 1 and 2 show that social activities in the community have not been affected by crude oil production. However, some hostile behaviours such as youth restiveness as a result of demand for compensation/payment from oil companies operating in the study area were observed. It is therefore recommended that further research be carried out to assess security effects of crude oil production. This paper thus concludes that effects of crude oil production activities are obvious in the environmental, agricultural and economic sectors of lives of the affected population, but same may not be said of the social components of their lives.


Open Access Short communication

Informal Training in Perspective: An Example from Koforidua Technical University, Ghana

Buckman Akuffo, Samuel Okae – Adjei, Smile Afua Dzisi

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/33334

Feedback in modeling is very crucial and educational institutions are not exempted. With the dynamic nature of businesses today, the development of technical and vocational education and training can greatly improve when periodic feedback is given to help shape the development and implementation of curriculum. After five (5) years of offering training and technical support to graduates in the informal sector in deprived communities, in Ghana, by Koforidua Technical University through the Institute of Open and Distance Learning, (IODL) with support from Commonwealth of Learning (COL), this paper traced graduates of the Artisan Programmes from 2010 to 2015. This was to help in generating relevant information that could be fed into curricula review to ensure that programmes offered meet expectations. Five hundred (500) graduates were randomly sampled from eight (8) deprived communities in the Eastern Region of Ghana of which 422 responded representing 84.4% response rate. Comfort of living, extent of material acquisition, available necessities of life, and increased self-confidence were some livelihood indicators used in the study. Results from the study revealed that 83% of graduates find the programmes highly beneficial because their skills have improved and seek to continue to the advance certificate. Again, the study showed that more than 70% of auto-mechanics, electricians, seamstresses, hairdressers and mobile phone repairers indicated that they urgently need further and modern training. Furthermore, over 80% of women and girls involved in the study indicated that their livelihood has improved tremendously after graduation and they were supporting their children education. The gaps identified by the study included the small component information communication technology in the curriculum of the Artisan programme. The study recommends, among others, that information communication technology component should be increased in the curriculum and the period of refresher training be reduced from six months to three months.


Open Access Original Research Article

Post 2006 Ethio-China Trade Relations: Challenges and Prospects

Getahun Zewde

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/33141

This article address post 2006 Ethio-China trade relations: Challenges and its prospects. The trade relation between the two countries has shown some improvement after 2006 due to the change of trade policies in Ethiopia, China’s growing trade interests in Ethiopia, the strengthened ties between the two governments based on common outlook of the developmental state and the Chinese none intervention policy. After critical analysis of trade data of the two countries, this paper empirically proved that Ethiopia incurs huge deficit in its trade with China. The data reveal that Ethiopia’s export to China is much short of its imports from China. Thus, Ethiopia’s balance of trade deficit can be largely explained by the unequal terms of trade between agricultural commodities (the country’s major export) and capital goods (Ethiopia’s major imports from China). In Ethiopia, dependence on the export of few primary agricultural products and raw materials leads to the country’s weak export performance and trade deficit. Among others, one of the major challenges of Ethiopia and China trade relations is the balance of trade which is highly slanted in favor of China. The scales are thus already tipped in China’s favor making it difficult for Ethiopia to bargain a genuine partnership. The China’s stance on Ethiopia is likely to harden in the long run, with more manipulation and exploitation and less benefit for Ethiopia.  Also, dumping of low priced export goods forced domestic Ethiopian producers out of business because they cannot compete on price with China. Finally, trade deficit between the two countries can result in lower aggregate demand and therefore slower growth, in the long run it can undermine the standard of living and lead to loss of jobs in home based industries. 

Open Access Review Article

Public Sector Spending and Economic Growth in Nigeria: In Search of a Stable Relationship

Miftahu Idris, Rosni Bakar

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/33363

In this study, recent development in government expenditure and epistemological literatures on the relationship between public spending and economic growth in Nigeria are examined. The primary aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between government expenditure and economic growth with the view to establishing a stable relationship. In view of that, an ARDL model is employed to provide the framework for estimating the existence or otherwise of the equilibrium relationship among the examined variables. However, government as an institution that provide welfare to the populace has a major role to play in deciding where priority spending should be allocated in order to enhance the developmental process and provide sustainable growth in the growing economy. In all submissions that debated on the relationship between public sector spending and economic growth, Keynesian philosophy was among the most prominent and celebrated in contrast to Wagner’s Law. Keynes regards government spending as an exogenous factor which can be utilised as a policy instrument to promote economic growth. Despite the diverse and conflicting empirical evidence on the relationship between public sector expenditure and economic growth that prevail in the literature, the empirical findings from this paper based on the estimated result from ARDL model reveals the existence of positive and significant relationship between public spending on economic growth in Nigeria. Undeniably, government expenditures are considered to be highly important in creating opportunities and widening the productive base at which developing countries can grow, Nigeria is inclusive. To achieve accelerated economic growth, there is need for an in-depth and broad macroeconomic reform in the Nigerian public finance to include certain features of transparency and effectiveness in the implementation of budgetary process. An essential part of the reform policy should be the review of public sector’s roles and responsibilities in the development process and concentrate on the priority areas rather than act as a substitute of the private sector. The inclusion of certain measures on the reform policy will appear satisfactory, for instance, expenditure on public goods that improves the allocative efficiency in the presence of positive externalities should be accorded high priority, including investment in infrastructure, more access to information and communication technology, expenditure on research and development, as well as diversification of the economy.