Open Access Original Research Article

Strengthening English Learning in Language Transition Classes by Spiraling English Teachers’ Competences in Tanzania

Gabrieli Prosper, Elisa Doroth

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/32271

English is an important language in Tanzania and the world over. In Tanzania, it is a compulsory school subject in primary and lower secondary (i.e. Forms I to IV) education and a compulsory medium of instruction in secondary tertiary levels of education. However, several studies have consistently reported on low levels of English competence among students in secondary schools in Tanzania. The situation is more evident at the language transition class (Form I). This study aimed at mitigating the challenges encountered in learning English in Form I classes. The study established a School-Based Professional Development (SB-PD) program to improve competence in English among Form I students. Six (6) English teachers and thirty (30) Form I students from three secondary schools in Dodoma Region were involved in this study. The referred teachers formed a learning team and participated in a series of activities which were facilitated by researchers from the University of Dodoma (UDOM).

The teachers worked together in developing short stories and other lesson materials, using them in lessons, observing and receiving feedback from colleagues. The teachers’ competences developed during the program were assessed using interviews and observation of students’ learning focusing on teachers’ adoption of effective pedagogical skills. The main question which guided this study was “Which school-based professional development program is likely to enhance the teachers’ competences in developing exemplary short story lessons for effective learning?” The findings indicate that English language teachers gained knowledge and competences in English content and effective pedagogy for teaching English. They were also able to develop and implement short story lessons using the current competence-based syllabus. Therefore, the learning team formed by the teachers was able to strengthen its teaching competences.


Open Access Original Research Article

Domestic Water Utilization and Its Determinants in the Rural Areas of Oyo State, Nigeria Using Multivariate Analysis

T. O. Ogunbode, I. P. Ifabiyi

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/34096

Investigation into water utilization and its determinants in the rural areas is salient to a result-oriented management of this resource. Thus, a research was conducted to assess the pattern of domestic water uses and its determinant in the rural areas of Oyo State, Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was applied to select 124 villages from 25 out of the 33 LGAs in Oyo State, Nigeria with 5 villages from each. Ten structured questionnaire were administered in each of the selected villages, giving a total of 1240 across the study area to generate data. The study revealed that water consumtion per head in the study area ranges between 15 litres/day in Shaki East and 31.7 litres/day in Oyo East LGA and that the dominant water consumption is absolutely domestic indicating that the study area is non-industrialized. Also, multivariate analysis conducted showed that 11 factors were determinants of domestic water consumption in the study area. These are water storage, cost of water, household size, water use for bathing, availability of alternative sources, location, reliability and accessibility of the source, distance, age of the respondent and gender composition. Multiple regression analysis of R2=35.0 for Oyo State indicated that each LGA should be treated individually when seeking solutions to water-related problems in the State. The study recommended detail survey on what determines water use in each LGA for a result-oriented water management. Effort is required of relevant agencies to embark on infrastructural and agricultural development in the area to boost water use.

Open Access Original Research Article

Migration in the Southern Border of Mexico from the Ethics of Liberation – An Analysis

Arturo G. Rillo, Beatriz E. Martínez-Carrillo

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/33829

Introduction: Mexico's southern border is the main gateway of Central American migrants bound for the United States, exposing themselves to risks that have created a humanitarian crisis.

Aims: To carry out an analysis of the ethical foundations related to the migratory movements of the southern border of Mexico.

Study Design:  An observational, retrospective, cross-sectional, analytical and documentary study of mixed qualitative type was carried out using the hermeneutic-interpretative approach.

Methodology: The study was developed in two stages and four phases (analytical, comprehensive, reconstructive, critical). The documentary analysis was made using philosophical research techniques. The theoretical posture included the liberation ethics proposed by Enrique Dussel. The variables of the study were: border conceptualization, humanitarian crisis and praxical solidarity. Statistical information included the period 2002 to 2014 and was obtained from the migratory statistics bulletins and the Survey of Migration of the Southern Border of Mexico. The information was recorded on an ad hoc data collection sheet. All analyses were done in simple percentages.

Results: The results show a cyclical tendency in the return of migrants to their country of origin. Those from Honduras report the highest perception of risk. Survival risks are the most common. Accidents and injuries decreased during the period 2011 to 2013. In 2013, 4.8% of migrants reported being extorted and 8.1% attacked. The conditions of the transmigrants were highlighted. From the standpoint of liberation ethics, solidarity is analyzed as the encounter with the constituent transmigrant of being-in-the-world that comes from the otherness in the recognition of oneself and the plurality of the other; where the horizon of meaning is delimited by friendship, love, care and hospitality.

Conclusion: The praxical solidarity represents a hermeneutic nucleus in the historical praxis of the exclusion, marginalization and segregation of the migrant.


Open Access Original Research Article

Grapho-Lexical Features of Selected Poems in Niyi Osundare’s Village Voices

Segun Aminu, Samson Oluwagbenga

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/32977

Language is a means of human communication. Indeed, the skillful use of language in poetry, one of the genres of literature, is significant for interpretation. Thus, language is regarded as an indispensable tool in the world of poetry. It is imperative to note that Niyi Osundare’s poems are unique and outstanding among his contemporaries because of his style. Therefore, this paper examines how Niyi Osundare creatively employs grapho-lexical features to convey his socio-political messages in his poems.


Open Access Review Article

An Examination of Representative Sample in Data-Based Research

Akinniyi, Alaba Joseph, Sanni, Eneji Ademoh

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/33069

The output of any research work depends, to a reasonable extent, on the adequacy of the sample from which data are obtained for the research. A sample is adequate when it is representative of the population or when it possesses the characteristics that are typical of the population from which it is drawn. The focus of this paper is on how researchers can select samples that are really representatives. Descriptive method was utilized in the writing of the paper. Attempts are made, in the paper, to describe the concepts of sample representativeness, sampling methods and sampling error. Some suggestions are then made on measures to take in carving out truly representative samples.