Open Access Short Research Article

Community Readiness for Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation Initiatives: A Case of Yovi Hydropower Project in Kilosa District, Morogoro - Tanzania

Bahati Tenga, Jasson Kalugendo

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/36178

The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of engaging rural communities in the process of institutionalizing climate change adaptation and mitigation initiatives: focusing on the process of engagement and communication and learning the rational and emotional commitment of people in the community to the issues of renewable energy.

The study was conducted for four weeks in three villages surrounding Yovi Mini Hydropower project in Kisanga-Valley ward of Kilosa District. Ninety (90) individuals responded to questionnaires, and ten (10) key stakeholders at village, district and national levels were interviewed. Based on grounded theory, the study utilized qualitative method and techniques to design, collect and analyze the data. 

The study findings revealed community members around Yovi hydropower project, were more informed than engaged during the institutionalization of the hydropower project. While the Project proponents were successful with communicating about the project to the villagers through their district and village leaders, there were insufficient platforms and required capacities for these leaders to effectively engage with citizens. Moreover, the information from surveys suggests that the notable setback in climate change mitigation and adaption initiatives is due to failure to engage adequately communities to understand the core purpose of the project in their own terms, and later influence some aspects of it.

These study findings raised a critical question on ‘what was the purpose of engaging community people to institutionalize climate change in this hydropower project, if their voices are not actually heard and used to determine the solutions and actions? As a start, the study provides framework to link communication and public engagement in the climate change mitigation and initiatives.

 

Open Access Commentary

Conceptual Underpinnings of Focus-on-form in Task-based Language Teaching

Lilliati Ismail

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/35850

Task-based language teaching (TBLT) which is often viewed as the strong version of Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) is gaining burgeoning interest as an approach to second language (L2) learning. However, many L2 researchers are concerned that the heavy focus on meaning and communication is insufficient for learners to achieve native-like language competence. Thus, researchers have proposed the use of focus-on-form in TBLT, where linguistic problems are dealt with as and when the need arises. This paper provides a conceptual basis for the need to use focus-on-form in TBLT in the L2 classroom.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Compliments and Compliment Responses Used by Male and Female Pashto Language Speakers

Mujeebullah Khan, Rabiah Rustam

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/34999

The present study aims to explore compliments and compliment responses used by male and female Pashto language speakers. Current research utilized Discourse Completion Test (DCT) as instrument of collecting data. The DCTs, designed for this study consist of compliments and compliment responses scenarios related with four situational settings related with appearance, personal traits, skills and possessions. The analysis reveals that the formulaic expression and appreciation token were two major response types which were most frequently used by both genders.  Most of the findings related with the gender differences in compliments and compliment responses are specific to Pashtun culture and society; however, some of them have resemblance to Turkish, Nigerian, Iranian, and Arabic cultures. This study suggests that gender differences in compliments and compliment responses might be universal but how speakers reflect them in their sociolinguistic behavior may not be uniform across cultures.

 

Open Access Original Research Article

Anti-Grazing Policy and Conflict Resolution between Fulani Herdsmen and Farmers in Ekiti State

Sylvester Ohis Ogo-Oluwa

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/35979

This study assessed the Anti-Grazing Policy and Conflict Resolution between Fulani Herdsmen and Farmers in Ekiti State. The incessant conflict between Fulani herdsmen and farmers in Nigeria, especially the Ikole attack killing two people on 20th and Oke Ado Ekiti State attack on 21st May 2016 prompt the Ekiti State government to enact Anti-grazing law in Ekiti State. The objective of the study is to establish the role of Anti-Grazing Policy in Conflict Resolution between Fulani herdsmen and Farmers in Ekiti State. Qualitative approach which focuses on the explanation of subjective perspectives, processes and contextual meaning was employed for the study. Primary and secondary data sources were used to generate data for the study. Purposive sample was used to drawn the 22 interview respondents. Both data from interview and secondary sources were analysed qualitatively. The study revealed that the Ekiti State Government passed into Law Anti Grazing Bill 2016 to resolve various conflicts between Fulani herdsmen and Farmers in Ekiti State. It also revealed that the Government set up Ekiti Anti-Grazing Enforcement Marshal who implements the Law. The State government partner with the 16 Local Governments in allocation of land to herdsmen for cattle’s grazing. It was established that the Government also collaborates with the herdsmen Association in Ekiti to maintain peaceful implementation of the law. It is evident that this Anti-grazing policy has succeeded in resolving conflict between Fulani herdsmen and Farmers in Ekiti State. We recommend creation of grazing zone; private ownership of ranch; border should be secured; training of Ekiti State Grazing Marshal and proper monitoring of their operations.

Open Access Review Article

Intellectual Capital and Organizational Performance in a Competitive Business Environment: A Review

Johnson J. Orugun, Danlami Joseph Aduku

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/33080

This paper aims at determining the imperative of intellectual capital on organizational performance. The paper reviewed empirical studies to confirm the effect of intellectual capital on organizational performance. The paper gathered information through journals, conference papers, books, thesis and working paper. Findings from several empirical studies indicate that intellectual capital has significant influence on organizational performance. Furthermore, it was discovered that human capital, structural capital, and relational capital are the three significant dimensions of intellectual capital that drives organizational performance. The paper concludes that intellectual capital plays a pivotal role in the pursuit and achievement of organizational performance, and that the synergy among the three dimensions of intellectual capital is instrumental to this organizational performance. The paper therefore suggests that Managers should use intellectual capital as a strategic approach in the pursuit and achievement of their organizational performance in a competitive business environment, and that they should ensure balance among human capital, structural capital, and relational capital.