Open Access Case study

Financial Stability of Islamic Banks; A Case Study of Pakistan

Inayat Ullah, Umar Kittab Saddozai, Iqtidar Hussain, Abdur Rehman

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/37356

It is reported by Thomson Reuter in its publication, that Islamic banks contribute $ 1.3 trillion in total assets of International Banking Sector during 2012, with the growing rate of 15% per annum. According to State Bank of Pakistan (SBP), there are five (05) fully fledged Islamic banks operating in Pakistan. And their share to deposits in banking business is nearly 13% and is expected to grow to 20% in 2020. Being the deposit taker and engine of economy, banks are required to be financially sound. Since emergence of Islamic Banking in 1975, share of Islamic banks is growing in the industry and corporate or ordinary investors are very keen to know their credibility, so their stability is very much questioned. To answer this, an empirical measure i.e. Z-Score was calculated and was compared with large as well small conventional banks operating in                Pakistan. Financial statements for last eight years (2007-2014) of fifteen banks were obtained and ratios were calculated for each bank. In analysis, five large conventional banks, five Islamic              banks and five small conventional banks were selected from Pakistan. And based on the average values of ratios and empirical analysis using statistical tools it was resulted that Islamic banks were more economically secure than both huge and small conventional banks. But their return on assets was comparatively smaller than large conventional banks but was larger than small conventional banks.

Open Access Commentary

Color Realism: True or Not?

Z. G. Ma

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/38095

Color realism refers to that things are colored, or colors are real. Although the view goes in a minority opinion, Byrne & Hilbert defend it based on the physical properties of color and the peculiarly assumed hue-magnitudes. However, hues are mind-dependent and cannot be used as a measure of the physical properties of things. As a result, the defense fails to justify the proposition of color realism.


Open Access Original Research Article

English Medium Instructions on English Language Proficiency

Anthony Andrew

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/37756

This research study is designed to examine the effect of English language as a medium of instruction on English language proficiency (skills) of Students during the four years of study in the degree programme. In Sri Lankan universities most of the degree programmes have been conducted in the English medium with the aim to improve the English language proficiency among students as well as the learning and achievement level towards the globally acceptable employment competencies.

The respondents were 174 undergraduate students of the Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) Programme of the Faculty of Commerce and Management (FCM) of the Eastern University, Sri Lanka (EUSL). A questionnaire pertaining to students’ perception was used as research instrument. Using descriptive statistics, the study found that there is a statistically significant score gain in all four of the English-language skill areas. The most gain occurred in the area of writing, followed by reading, listening and then speaking. Results from questionnaires indicate that, students’ different perceptions regarding language ability and the problems associated with the use of English for instruction.  Students generally do not feel that studying in English causes problems for them, and they rate their ability in speaking listening, reading, and writing as good to excellent.


Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of the Predictors of Socio Economic Status between Manipuri and Khasia Ethnic Communities in North Eastern Region of Bangladesh

N. Pal, M. S. Mazumder, M. Alam, S. Akter, S. Rahman

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/36978

The objective of the study is to find out the predictors of the socio-economic status of the ethnic community (Manipuri and Khasia) in Bangladesh. The study analyzed a total of 113 (82 Manipuri & 31 Khasia) respondents from Manipuri and Khasia community purposively selected from Sylhet district. The information was recorded in a pre-structured questionnaire. Socio-economic status of the Manipuri and Khasia community was identified using self-developed Socio-Economic Index. A binary logistic regression model was fitted to determine the influencing factors responsible for the socio economic status of both communities. Family type, age at first marriage, and contraceptive use were the predictors of Socio-Economic Status for Manipuri community and income & contraceptive use were the predictors of Socio-Economic Status for Khasia community. In Khasia community, this research highlighted that those who had higher income and used contraceptive were having good socio-economic condition. On a different, joint family maintaining good        socio-economic status than single family in the Manipuri Community. The Manipuri women who were married at late age or over than 18 years age and used contraceptive for family control were maintaining good socio-economic condition. Among all the responsible factors, contraceptive use was found to be highly significant predictors regulating the socio-economic status of both communities. Finally this study suggested that government can take a strong initiative for the provision of contraceptive use to improve socio-economic status of both communities.


Open Access Original Research Article

Investigating the Determinants of Child Malnutrition in Cameroon: Evidence from the Second Cameroonian Household Consumption Survey

Samuel Fambon, Francis Menjo Baye

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/37197

Background/Objectives: This paper assesses the impact of household consumption spending on the nutritional status of children as measured by height-for-age, weight-for- age, and weight-for-height Z-scores, while controlling for other correlates.

Methods/Statistical Analysis: To address these objectives, use is made of a sample of children aged 0 to 36 months derived from the second Cameroonian household consumption survey. The method of analysis encompasses the ordinary least squares, two-stage least squares and the control function approach. The potential endogeneity of household consumption spending is addressed using four sets of instrumental variables: quantity of land, parental levels of educational, formal employment and dependence ratio. 

Findings: The control function approach was effective in simultaneously purging the structural parameters of potential endogeneity of household consumption spending and unobserved heterogeneity. Reduced form estimates show that household land holding recorded a diminishing effect on household consumption spending, meanwhile parental levels of education and participation in formal labour markets correlate positively with household consumption spending. The main results show that household consumption spending is positively associated with short-term child nutritional status. In particular, male-headed households’ seem to be more effective in achieving better child health than their female counterparts – a finding attributable to unobserved spousal inputs, especially as male household heads are generally married, whereas their female counterparts are typically single parents. Results also show that boys were more undernourished than girls and younger children were more undernourished than older ones. In addition, older household heads were more likely than their younger counterparts to achieve positive nutritional outcomes. This paper contributes to the empirical literature by suggesting instruments that correlate with child nutritional status mainly through household consumption spending.

Application/Improvements: If future human capital endowments are considered import in the development process, then it is important to focus on policies related to access to land, labour markets and adult literacy.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Impact of Umuada Group (The Powerful Daughters) in Umuorah-Umuohiri

A. Arogo, O. Ohanaka, A. Diekedie, B. C. Ephraim-Emmanuel, E. W. Apiakise

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/36741

The role of community development as well as conflict resolution is not one issue strictly reserved for men as some groups of women have in the past shown that these tasks can also be handled by women. One of such groups is the Umuada Ndi Igbo of the Eastern part of Nigeria. The main focus of this study is to investigate the impact of Umuada in Umuorah-Umuohiri in Isiala Mbano local government area of Imo State. This was deemed necessary to study so as to be well informed               of the various contributions of the Umuada group in Umuorah-Umuohiri Community. This phenomenological research study involved Umuada daughters of Umuorah village, adult community members as well as chiefs. Oral interviews using a structured interview schedule was used as the method for data collection. The data was presented by highlighting the responses of respondents. This study reveals from reports gathered that the Umuada group of women in Umuorah village were resourceful and had a strong impact in certain issues pertaining the village including settling inter and intra-communal disputes, ensuring law and order as well as community development. Conclusively, the Umuada group in Umuorah village is necessary forces involved in pertinent issues regarding the village. This has earned them respect as morally responsible agents where they serve. Their role in conflict resolution and culture/norms implementation in Igbo land is worthy of note. Further enquiry into the system of interaction between UMUADA and formal systems meant to ensure law and order in Nigeria is however recommended.


Open Access Original Research Article

Anita Garibaldi: A Brazilian Heroine in a Traditional Perspective

Marina Luísa Rohde, Gilmei Francisco Fleck

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/37117

The overarching theme of the present paperwork lies in casting some light to the historic Brazilian character of Anita Garibaldi (1821–1849) in order to draw the public’s attention to the fact that this fictional writing has been used to corroborate the historical past. So as to achieve these goals, the romance studied was written by Lisa Sergio in 1969 and it is called I Am My Beloved: The Life of Anita Garibaldi. With a rather clear language, the author was able to present a piece of fictionalization of History, praising what has so far been recorded as the truth. In a nutshell, this novel aims at reassuring the official past, nothing is reviewed and nothing is retold, Anita keeps being seen as a heroine solely because of the love she felt for Giuseppe Garibaldi (1807 – 1882). As for the theoretical resource, the study is based on the researches conducted by Lukács (2011), Márquez Rodríguez (1996), Albuquerque and Fleck (2015) and Fleck (2017). This study seeks to pay attention to the figure of Anita Garibaldi as well as the different modalities of historical novel, especially the traditional one, and the defining features of this category of novel.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Electricity Services on Microenterprise: Evidence from Ganaja Village, Kogi State, Nigeria

Innocent U. Duru, Abubakar Yusuf

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/38481

The development of sufficient and sustainable access to electricity services for micro-enterprises have been acknowledged as a major challenge confronting most developing country, and fast becoming a prerequisite for reducing poverty and achieving robust development of micro-enterprises. The study employed descriptive statistics to examine the role of electricity services on micro-enterprises establishment, growth, expansion, decline, and closure in rural Ganaja. Data were obtained from one hundred micro-enterprises located in Ganaja village of Kogi State. The results from the study showed that electricity services had both positive and negative effects on micro-enterprises establishment, growth, expansion, decline, and closure in Ganaja village. The findings further revealed that the effect of electricity services was felt in the opening of new businesses, expansion of existing businesses, employment of more employees, the decline in turnover, increase in income and stoppage of production or operation. The problems and barriers experienced by Micro-Enterprises in accessing and using electricity services are lack of service line materials such as fuses, cables, poles and transformers, complicated tariff structure such as high initial connection and installation fees and high monthly bills; illegal connection and vandalism of cables and cooling transformer oil which causes power rationing, low voltage and fluctuation. The study, therefore, recommends increase access to capital for investments in electricity generating equipment and appliances; rural electricity access projects should focus on micro-credit provision, allowing the poor to purchase direct-use electricity generating equipment and appliances. Also, subsidies from the Local Government and credit based sales need to be provided to the micro-enterprises, encouraging them to purchase equipment such as generators to increase development in the village.


Open Access Original Research Article

Self-efficacy Factor Invariance across Pre-service and In-service Teachers in Botswana

Molefhe Mogapi, Waitshega Tefo Smitta Moalosi, Gaelebale N. Tsheko

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2017/38973

The challenges facing measurement experts and researchers in the social sciences field is ensuring that measurement scales operate equally across different sub-populations. Measurement invariance across gender for example means that males and females conceptualize and interpret the construct being measured similarly and thus meaningful comparisons between the groups can be made. Measurement non-invariance on the other hand can be a threat to validity as it implies that the construct being assessed has different structures across groups. The current study investigates the invariance of self-efficacy construct across pre-service and in-service teachers. The teachers were administered a Teacher Self Efficacy Scale with 33 Likert scale items and the data were analyzed using maximum likelihood procedures with Varimax rotation techniques. Reliable dimensions were extracted on the basis of two factor extraction procedures. The final solutions for the two groups were interpreted with reference to the factor loadings and item content for items that had significant loading on a particular factor.