Open Access Original Research Article

Traditional Body Marks for Beautification among Selected Dangme Groups in Ghana

Ebeheakey Alice Korkor, Kquofi Steve

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2018/39317

Body marking is both an elusive and a sensitive issue on various forms of discussion. Most individuals do not want to associate themselves with other people who have body marks and this has attached a sense of stigmatization to the issue of body marks as there is the vivid lack of understanding of the basis for making these cultural artefacts. There was, therefore, the need for exploration into the issue to understand the reasons for making body marks specifically for beautification and to understand the ramifications of these marks. Most literature available focuses on traditional body marks for several reasons in countries like Nigeria, Sudan, and Benin. Ghana is a country that also has body marks among various cultures and ethnic groups yet the undertones of these marks have not been explored in certain parts of the country. This study was therefore conducted to find out the various types of traditional body marks done for beautification among some ethnic groups in southern Ghana. Three ethnic groups from the Ga-Dangme tribe were selected for the study and these were Ningo, Prampram, and Ada. Data were collected from the three Dangme groups based on the understanding of body marks for beautification according to their culture. The qualitative research method was used, with interviews and observations being the main form of data collection instruments. Out of the overall accessible population of 90 respondents, a sample size of 60 was purposively selected based on the information provided by body marks for beautification. The results of the study showed different body marks that are made for different cultural reasons among those ethnic groups.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Application and Practice of International Refugee Laws in Ghana: A Case Study of Egyeikrom Refugee Camp

Abdul Hamid Kwarteng

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2018/39406

As a signatory of the 1951 United Nations (UN) Convention on the Status and Rights of Refuges and the AU 1969 Refugee Convention, Ghana is obliged by international law and convention to ensure and guarantee the basic rights of refugees in Egyeikrom Refugee camps. These basic rights include, but not limited to: the right to public education, right to efficient health care services, access and availability of food, shelter, safe and good drinking water, security and the right to a clean and healthy environment.

The purpose of the research was to find out what constitute the implementation gaps as far as guaranteeing the basic rights of refugees in Egyeikrom camp is concerned. The study adopted the case study approach and used both qualitative and quantitative methods of data collection. The qualitative methods used were interviews, focused group discussions, and personal observation. A questionnaire was also used to solicit the view of 336 respondents and the data was analyzed using NVivo and the Statistical Package for Social Science software. The findings from the study revealed that the main implementation gap in Egyeikrom Refugee camp as far as ensuring the rights of refugees are concerned were in the areas of educational rights, shelter, security and environmental conditions in the camp. It is therefore recommended that the UNHCR, Ghana government and NGOs should collaborate together to find lasting solutions to these problems through adequate funding in providing habitable facilities, better security and education in the refugee camp.


Open Access Original Research Article

Electoral Reforms and Democratic Consolidation in Ghana: An Analysis of the Role of the Electoral Commission in the Fourth Republic (1992-2016)

Thomas P. Botchway, Abdul Hamid Kwarteng

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2018/39607

The holdings of periodic free and fair elections have become a key step to consolidating democracies around the world. This calls for an effective means of addressing election-related issues and building strong election management bodies that have the ability to ensure the involvement of various stakeholders in the entire process. The acceptance or otherwise of election results, especially in developing countries where elections usually end in unnecessary conflicts, make electoral reforms very important.

The paper reviews some of the key issues that have characterized Ghanaian elections under the Fourth Republic and throws some light on some reforms that have been carried out by the country’s electoral commission to ensure that the country’s efforts at consolidating her democracy becomes a reality. The paper does so by examining policy documents and reports on the subject under consideration.

The paper found that while the EC plays a key role in electoral reform, its efforts may not yield the necessary results if it does not partner with the key stakeholders. The paper further shows that holding transparent and credible elections is a critical component of the democratization process which enhances the legitimacy of the government and also increases trust between the government and its people if the necessary reforms are undertaken in line with the aspirations of the people.


Open Access Original Research Article

NYSE: Emotional Control Sharing Trading Psychology

Artemis A. Styliadou, Simona P. Williamson

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2018/39351

A real-world problem in stock markets is always the emotional control. Obviously, the real question is how to “control” the bad emotions and feelings (e.g. fear and greed), just before the execution orders, rather than to “eliminate” them.  In order to address the emotional control problem, this article introduces the innovative concept “Emotional Control Sharing Trading Psychology, ECSTP”, which has been defined as a collaborative trading engineering term. Then, an empirically-tested approach (statistical analysis) is performed in order to initially evaluate the proposed term in real-world NYSE trading strategies as far as the returns are concern. The evaluation result shows an up to 29% improve in returns after the adoption of the proposed term. The implications of the proposed trading approach are pointed to better and more stable decisions with the cost of groupware coordination and communication problems. Always, a well designed and organized collaborative intervention improves groupware efficiency and effectiveness for investment decisions.


Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis of Willingness to Pay (WTP) for Improved Water Supply in Owo Local Government, Ondo State, Nigeria

Tolulope J. Akeju, Gbenga J. Oladehinde, Kasali Abubakar

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ARJASS/2018/39282

Willingness to pay for social services is often regarded as a means of ensuring the long-term sustainability of such services. This paper examines willingness to pay (WTP) for improved water supply in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 256 households through multi-stage sampling from eleven political wards in Owo. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics and logit regression. Results show that 43% of the residents obtained water from public utility while 20.3% and 18.8% obtained water from well and borehole respectively. Majority of the residents (70.3%) were dissatisfied with unreliable water services but were willing to pay for improved water supply (74.9%). Residents were willing to pay an average sum of N1,617.64 (US$4.5) per month for improved water supply services. The results of logit regression analysis revealed that gender, a frequency of water, education, household size, income, quality of water and connection charges were the factors influencing residents’ willingness to pay (WTP) for improved water supply services in the study area. There is a need for government to create enabling the policy for public-private partnership in the improvement of water supply in the study area.