Open Access Short Research Article
Hegel undoubtedly, one of the most famous philosophers of the modern time, sees human history as a dialectical method which involves thesis, antithesis and synthesis. This famous method which is also commonly referred to as dialectics was the brainchild of Hegel who considered human history as a process of development involving human spirit, consciousness and freedom. Starting with the thesis, Spirit is an abstract entity which already contains its antithesis. Spirit becomes real through its antithesis of human consciousness. Human being, the opposition of Spirit, helps the Spirit to actualize its self-purpose of freedom. When the Spirit finally attains its purpose i.e. freedom becomes the synthesis. This process in history continues but in higher form than the first. For inherent in every synthesis (which in turn becomes the thesis) is its antithesis, then to synthesis. Hegel considers the ultimate aim of human history as to attain freedom which is the final product of spirit and consciousness. Development comes out as a parallel but the vital product of this process of freedom in human history. Freedom, spirit and reasoning are some of his key concepts in this regard which he tends to connect with human history in a meaningful manner. Precisely, Hegel observes and interprets human history as the process of attainment of a better state of freedom and development. This study aims to briefly explain and discuss the key concepts of Hegelian philosophy of development and how human history has progressed towards development and freedom.
Open Access Opinion Article
There has been an ongoing and probably a never-ending debate on whether international law is really law. Thus, there exists a group of scholars who are of the view that international law is not a real law while another group of scholars on the other hand also argue that international law is real law. The article contributes to the existing literature on this argument by giving a different dimension to the argument. That is, the article situates the argument of whether international law is a real law or not, into the theory of Realism and Liberalism and by outlining the main arguments provided by the two schools of thought to support their respective views on the topic under discussion, an objective conclusion was drawn at the end.
The methodology adopted for the study is the qualitative approach of which the works of renowned scholars that focus on debating whether international law is a real law or not were studied and this aided in a comprehensive analysis of the arguments surrounding this debate and eventually leading to an objective conclusion. Materials used include information from the internet, journal articles, policy documents as well as all other important reading materials such as the dailies, press releases, news items and official reports.
The article finally concludes by stating that international law is a real law because enforcement is not entirely the only hallmark of what constitutes law and even domestic law in a broader sense does not possess full enforcement as argued by scholars who are of the view that international law is not really law.
Open Access Original Research Article
Aims: This study sought to determine how variables of domestic abuse (physical maltreatment, domestic enslavement, and verbal abuse of children by parents/guardians) contribute to the prevalence of antisocial behaviour among secondary school students in Aba Education Zone of Abia State, Nigeria.
Study Design: The study adopted the ex-post facto survey design.
Population of Study: The Population of the study comprised all the 5, 605 senior secondary school students in Aba education Zone during the period of this study.
Methodology: The multi-stage random sampling procedure was used to select 1400 adolescents, which is 25% of the population, for the study. The instrument used in data collection was the researcher–made Domestic Abuse and Antisocial Behaviour Questionnaire. The reliability of the instrument was .86 Cronbach’s Alpha. Independent t-test was used to analyse data for hypotheses testing. The independent variables were used as the grouping variable and the grouping was done based on the students’ scores on each variable.
Results: The result of independent samples t-test conducted to test the research hypotheses showed that: (1) There was a significant influence of parents’ physical maltreatment of children on antisocial behaviour (M1=36.89, M2=29.20; SD1=9.491, SD2=8.984); conditions: t(1398)=7.825, P=0.000, α =.05. (2) There was a significant influence of domestic enslavement of children on antisocial behaviour (M1=35.81, M2=29.12; SD1=8.954, SD2=9.024); conditions: t(1398)=7.804, P =0.000, α =.05. (3) There was a significant influence of verbal abuse of children on antisocial behaviour (M1=38.93, M2=27.04; SD1=8.762, SD2=7.452); conditions: t(1398)= 23.88, P =0.000, α =.05.
Conclusion: Students who were physically maltreated at home were more prone to manifesting antisocial behaviour. Domestic enslavement induces negative emotions with antisocial implications. Parental verbal abuse begets in the children the tendency to use abusive words on peers at school.
Open Access Original Research Article
Participation of women in the smooth and proper development process is indispensable especially a country like Bangladesh which has huge numbers of women as a human resource. But regrettably, women in Bangladesh are in many ways inferior to and hooked on men from early childhood and branded as domestic life through male domination particularly in politics. The social structure of Bangladesh still works pessimistically about political participation. The recent local government reform initiates to allow women at the grassroots level and created reserved quotas and direct election through adult franchise for women in the Union Parishad. However, there are some serious lacunae in gender balancing both in terms of the government policy and reform agenda. The article tried to find problems of women’s participation in the decision-making, factors are responsible to keep them away and suggest that there would be possible solutions to unravel problems.
Open Access Original Research Article
Ghana has experienced three peaceful transfers of power over the past 26 years. There are effective systems in place that have been handling election-related issues in the country. The people have accepted democracy as the ‘only game in town’.
The paper adopts an expository approach. It uses both primary and secondary sources of information such as press releases, news items, official reports from the EC and various election observer groups and international organizations. Interviews and focus group discussions were also undertaken.
The study finds that Ghana still faces some challenges in terms of its ability to produce some democratic dividends despite the many years of enjoying a seemingly consolidated democracy. Massive unemployment persists; corruption exists in all branches of government; political elites usually escape the ambit of the law while the poor masses are always hemmed in. Are these really characteristics of a consolidated democracy?
The paper submits that despite the fact that most of the conditions that fuel democratic consolidation exist in Ghana, the country is now on the second step of the democratic consolidation ladder- electoral democracy. In essence, there are better prospects for future democratic consolidation in the country.