Open Access Short Research Article

Vocational Education and Training Perception on Integration of Prisoners into the Society

Clement Muinde Mbatha, Bonaventure W. Kere, Ahmed Ferej, Kisilu Mashtakh Kitainge

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2019/v9i430131

This study sought to evaluate Vocational Education and Training (VET) perception on integration of prisoners back into the society. The study was undertaken in Mombasa County with a primary focus drawn to Shimo La Tewa main prison and Shimo La Tewa Medium Security Prison. Questionnaire instruments were used for data collection. Different questionnaires were administered to different response groups. The groups included the prison administrators, the trainers, trainees and ex-prisoners. Sample selection method was majorly purposive for all groups except for the trainees who were selected randomly from a pool of those who undertook VET. The information was coded, cleaned and analyzed using the Predictive Analytical Software (PASW). Mixed methods such as qualitative and quantitative techniques were used as the data collected was both qualitative and quantitative. To facilitate the data collection that was qualitative in nature open ended questions were captured in the questionnaire. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to deduce meaningful information. Regression analysis was done to assess the perception on integration of prisoners into the society. The model was found to be statistically significant (and the degree of linear relationship  while the total amount of variation explained by perception was significant. Other perceptions deduced to impact on integration back into the society, societal point of view on the released persons, the prison administration point of view on the role of VET for inmates in prison and finally, the perception of trainers based in remunerative impact of VET on them. The research recommends that an orientation programme on importance of VET be conducted for prisoners before they can make choices on the types of courses that they wish to undertake, civic education for the society should be done for it is an integral part in ensuring successful re-entry for the prisoners, policies to reduce discrimination against prisoner need to be formulated and enacted, there is need to enhance human resource capital in prisons and finally, material resources to facilitate implementation of VET need to conform with market requirements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socioeconomic Factors Responsible for Livelihood Improvement of Agar (Aquilaria malaccensis. roxb) Oil Producers of Maulvibazar District, Bangladesh

Bibi Marium, Jasim Uddin Ahmed, Kanij Fatema, Md. Nur Mozahid

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2019/v9i430129

Aims: The study was accomplished for assessing the impact of agar oil production on livelihood improvement of its producers.

Study Design: This article is a socioeconomic study and placed on empirical analysis. It conducted the socioeconomic factors which had an impact on the livelihood improvement of agar oil producers.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Barlekha Upazilla of Maulvibazar District of Bangladesh. The study period was mid-June to mid-September/2017.

Methodology: The relevant data were collected from the agar oil producers of Maulvibazar District, Bangladesh. Household having at least one factory were included for the study. A total of 60 households among 180 household were selected as sample. Field survey data were collected through face to face interviewing of the respondents using a structured questionnaire through simple random sampling. After cleaning and correcting the data Microsoft Excel and Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) were used for analyzing the data.

Results: The average family size was found 10.17 (small: 10%; medium: 45% and large: 45%) and majority (63.3%) belongs to the graduation level, meaning having 16.0 years of education. The results of the regression model revealed that amount of annual income, credit access of household, membership of an organization had the positive impact and an increasing the age of household head had a negative effect on livelihood improvement. Instead of having different constraints, the major problems faced by the producers in agar oil production were lack of industrial gas connection and lack of modern laboratory.

Conclusion: In order to enrich the livelihood improvement of agar oil producer’s industrial gas connection, modern laboratory and better credit services should be well executed by different government and non-government organization.

Open Access Original Research Article

The State, Society and Political Relationships of Northern Nigerian Youths in the Fourth Republic (1999-2019)

Musa Kabir Umar, Sulaiman Abdullahi Bambale

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2019/v9i430130

The paper examined the tribulations and the effects of how the political class bastardized and corruptly mishandled the democratic politics of northern Nigeria which in effect criminalized the mindset of the youth since the inception of the Fourth Republic in May 1999. The pointers of these youths' criminalities are seen in activities such as Boko Haram, kidnapping, armed robbery, armed banditry, cattle-rustling, political thuggery and gangsterism among others. These are the current challenges confronting entire northern Nigeria because of the neglect, abandonment, and misgovernance, particularly of the rural areas. The objective of the paper sought to analyze the challenging effects of the northern youths' political misfortunes which caused the northern region to be in a serious security dilemma. Thus, the paper employed historical analysis using a secondary source of data to discuss and analysed how the Nigerian youths were relegated to mere evil political tools by the politicians over the years. It found out that the youth have been in a deplorable condition and had become ready-made instruments of the politicians to commit electoral crimes. Thus, they have become vulnerable to any anti-social conduct that can easily get them to quick and fast monetary advantages or religious extremism. The paper lastly suggests that the condition of these youth must be improved to deal with emerging social threats. This can be done by investing adequately in education, social services, infrastructural facilities and instantaneous provision of employment opportunities.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Meaning of Public Information Openness Communication in Village Government of Central Java

Agus Triyono, Ahmad Sihabudin, Dewi Widowati

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2019/v9i430132

Village government as one of the public institutions must implement public information openness on all its activities based on Law no.14 Year 2008 concerning public information openness and Village Law No. 6 Year 2014. This study used cognitive dissonance theory to analyze the meaning of public information openness on village government officials in Central Java. This research aimed at finding the meaning of messages conveyed by the village government about public information openness. Moreover, this research used qualitative approach through case study method. In addition, research data are obtained through interviews, focus group discussions and observations. Meanwhile, post positivism paradigm was used to analyze all the findings of this study. The findings of this study indicate that human resources working in the village government have not completely understood the meaning of information openness. This may due to a lack of socialization and information on public information openness. Many of them interpreted it differently. Thus, there were several village officials conducting a violation in information openness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Print Culture in the Sultanate of Riau-Lingga during the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

Hafiz Zakariya, Wiwin Oktasari

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2019/v9i430133

Print empowers ways of communicating an idea. In fact, in many ways, it could promote democratization of an individual’s expression, which sometimes can be uncontrollable and even anarchic. Though printing has powerful impact on society; it has been ignored in mainstream scholarship. Existing studies about printing press and its impact on the Malay world are limited. It is surprisingly marginalized in the mainstream scholarship despite the fact that history actually bears witness that printing played an important role in the past. Thus, this article discusses the print culture in the Malay world with special reference to the Kingdom of Riau-Lingga. It begins by describing the techniques of printing especially lithography and typography used in the Malay world.  It also explains the advent of the print technology in the Dutch East Indies in general and Riau in particular, and how the print culture gradually replaced manuscript in knowledge transmission during the time of Raja Ali Haji. Subsequently, it describes how the Rushdiah Club utilized this technology during the end of the 19th century in Riau-Lingga.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impacts of Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing on Developing Countries: The Case of Somalia

Abdimalik Jama Omar, Ayub Abdirahman Mohamed, Sulaiman Abdullahi Bambale

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2019/v9i430134

Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated (IUU) fishing is recognized as global phenomenon and also a major obstacle to achieved sustainable fisheries. The consequences of IUU fishing cost up to $23 billion a year. Developing countries are excessively influenced by this illegal business, to a limited extent because of an absence of monitoring, control and surveillance (MCS) capacity within their sovereign jurisdiction. It represents a remarkable loss of revenue, where dependence on fisheries for food, livelihoods and revenue is high. Somalia, having the longest coastline in Africa is badly affected by this IUU. Hence, this research analyses the impacts of IUU fishing to Somalia. It examines the root causes of the problem and how it has affected the whole nation and its people, as well as and how the government and regional administrations are putting efforts on fighting against it. This research discusses the baseline against which successful action to combat illegal fishing can be judged. Document study and interview are the main data collection methods in this research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Effectiveness of Amnesty Program as a Response Tool in Containment of the Impact of “Cult Related” Activities in Niger Delta Region

Ngozi Rodney Nwaogu, Vincent Weli, Mbee Daniel Mbee

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2019/v9i430135

Background of Study: Cult related activities such as inter and intra cult clashes have been prevalent in communities in Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. The clashes which are violent in nature are carried out by youths who belong to one cult group or the other. The clashes occur when members of a cult group attack members of another or other cult groups or invade a community in order to take control of an area and the proceeds accruing from crude oil exploitation and exploration by multi- national oil companies. Among the major cult groups perpetrating the violent acts include Deybam, Deywell, Iceland and Greenland. Due to the violent clashes many lives have been lost, properties destroyed, women raped, residents displaced, houses burnt and residents kidnapped/abducted. These affected socio-economic activities and livelihood means of the people. 

Materials and Methods: This research analyzes the effectiveness of amnesty program as a response tool in mitigating cult related activities in Niger Delta region. Specifically, the study examines the magnitude of cult impact, relationship between frequency of cult attacks and fatalities, and examines the impact of cult activities before and after the amnesty. Adopting Cross- sectional research resign and using data chiefly collected from Nigerian Police, a total of 36 communities were purposively selected from 2 States in Niger Delta where amnesty was offered in 2016. The data were subjected to Pearson’s correlation and T-test statistical analysis.

Results: Pearson’s correlation showed that there was a positive significant relationship between cult attacks and fatalities over a ten year period, with r = 0.83 at 99% probability level. The Student’s t-test showed a statistically significant difference on cult attacks before and after amnesty with t-cal of 2.55> t-tab of 2.01 at 95% probability level. The t-test also showed a statistically significant difference on cult fatalities before and after amnesty with t-cal of 2.41> t- tab of 2.01 at 95% probability level. Findings further revealed that mean values of cult attacks (3.20) and fatalities (2.70) after the amnesty were greater than mean values of cult attacks (2.13) and fatalities (1.37) before the amnesty.

Conclusion: This showed that despite the amnesty, cult impact was still high in the study area and it was concluded that administration of amnesty is not an effective response tool to mitigation and containment of cult related activities in Niger Delta region, owing to its poor implementation and the desire to join cult groups by many youths who felt that joining the cult group will accord them protection and power over others. It is recommended that government should involve the local communities in designing an intervention program for youths.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis of Theory of Organisational Typologies and their Application in Higher Education Institutional Settings

Muftahu Jibirin Salihu

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2019/v9i430149

This research examined the different theories of organisational typologies and their conceptualised application to higher education institutions. The paper is divided into two main parts. The first part is the literature review which discusses each of the organisational typologies and their basic characteristics. Specific examples are also given for each of organisational typology alongside the proponent of each type. Four different types of typologies presented by Miles and Snow [1], Burns and Stalker [2], Morgan [3] and Hoy and Miskel [4] are discussed in the review section. The second part practically synthesised how each of the organisational typologies could apply to the higher educational institutions. A mind map was created to prove how a specifically higher institution may be classified as a ‘defender’ type of organisation.