Open Access Case study

Visual Industry, Visual Culture and New Phase of Modern Human Civilization in Indonesian Studies

Ardhariksa Zukhruf Kurniullah

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 11-23
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2020/v10i330147

The space for public discourse and contemporary literature has brought the people today living in a connected world. This is a condition triggered by technological developments, especially in the field of communication technology and information characterized by three developmental directions: convergence, portability, personalization. The development of Information and communications technology (ICT) over the past decade has brought a new trend in the visual communication industry, that is the presence of various media that combine new communication technologies and traditional mass communication technologies. The results of this study indicated that the position and direction of the visual activism development in Indonesia involve individuals and groups with different social backgrounds, movement ideologies, approach methods, patterns, intervention areas, and change objectives. The visual industry is not born and created from the process of creativity but is born of the process of economic determinism so that it constructs visual culture as a commodity of the capitalist group. False consciousness is a process in which visual culture is formed. Society is deliberately shaped through perceptions that are constructed with false consciousness.

Open Access Original Research Article

Motivational Factors in a Blended Learning Course When Teaching Students from Confucian-Heritage Culture

Peter Tze-Ming Chou

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2020/v10i330146

This study explores the attitudes of students with Confucian values toward blended learning classroom. In the Confucian learning culture, students are viewed as passive learners, reliant on rote memorization, assessment-driven, obedient to authority, and fearful of showing different opinions to the instructor. This style of learning is different than online learning, which encourages independence and require students to take greater responsibility for their own learning. This study comprised of 94 students who took a blended listening course in English from a medium-sized university in Southern Taiwan. A questionnaire was administered at the end of the course and it was found that the participants in this study demonstrated certain characteristics associated with the Confucian-heritage learning culture. Two important factors in helping students with Confucian values succeed in a blended classroom include classroom management and a user-friendly platform which reduces anxiety associated technology. The use of blended learning would be a good choice for such students because it offers a combination of the traditional classroom that students are used to for parts of the semester with the convenience of online learning for the other parts of the semester.

Open Access Original Research Article

Domesticating Vigilantism in Ghana’s Fourth Republic: The Challenge Ahead

George Asekere

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 24-39
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2020/v10i330148

Political party vigilantism in Ghana has consistently been on the ascendency since the return to Constitutional rule in 1993. Their activities have usually been during and after elections across the country. By-elections in Atiwa, Akwatia, Chereponi, Talensi, Amenfi West and more recently Ayawaso West Wuogon, have all been marred by acts of violence. Ghana in 2017 recorded for the first time political party vigilante groups storming a courtroom in Kumasi and freeing some of their members standing trial after assaulting a regional security coordinator in the second largest region in the country – Ashanti region. The paper seeks to highlight the dangers inherent in this rather negative development which could reverse the gains Ghana has made in consolidating its democracy. The author relied on secondary data including relevant media publications and statements from civil society organizations, political parties and religious bodies on vigilantism in Ghana. Findings show that the seed of vigilantism has been sowed and allowed to be nurtured to the extent that the parties have taken uncompromising positions in ending the cancer because it borders on political power. A law has been passed but indications are that nothing much is changing. The National Peace Council has intervened yet there is no sign of lasting solution to the problem. The paper concludes that all stakeholders especially the civil society organizations and the religious bodies ought to be objective and bold to openly name and shame political parties whose members engage in negative acts of vigilantism and urge the masses to vote against such parties or else the phenomenon will persist and its ramifications will be disastrous.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Analysis of the Impacts of Crop Farmers and Cattle Herders Conflicts on Community Development in Adamawa State, Nigeria

Simon Bulus, Collins H. Wizor

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 40-53
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2020/v10i330150

The constant conflicts between crop farmers and cattle herders over the years in the Sahel savanna region, particularly the Northeast geopolitical region of Nigeria has been a recurring issue claiming several lives and properties without any holistic approach by the government to ameliorate or solve the problem. In contemporary times, the conflict has assumed a dangerous dimension and therefore, requires urgent measures to curb the menace. It is against this background that this study seeks to investigate the impacts of crop farmers' and cattle herders' conflict on community development in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Three (3) Local Government Areas (LGA) in the state were purposively selected from the 3 senatorial zones in the state. This was followed by the selection of 21 crop farmers and 21 cattle herders from each of the 3 LGAs through purposive and random sampling techniques to obtain a sample size of 126 respondents. Data were gathered with the aid of structured questionnaires and structured interview schedules. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was also conducted with separate groups of cattle herders and crop farmers. Descriptive statistics (mean, frequency counts, percentages) were used to describe the personal characteristics of crop farmers and cattle herders, inferential statistics (Logit regression, chi-square) were used to determine the factors responsible for the cause of conflict and the relationship between the conflict and community development indices in the study area. Results from the findings shows that majority of the crop farmers and cattle herders are male, the perceived causes of the conflicts include encroachment of grazing reserve by farmers, the encroachment of stock route by farmers, grazing of crops by the herders and non-accessibility to water points by the two groups. The study further revealed major impacts of these conflicts to include loss of human lives and reduced household income, reduced access to agricultural land and destruction of infrastructural facilities. The conflict resolution strategies adopted includes but not limited to reactivation of existing grazing reserves, sensitization of conflicting parties by community leaders and amendment of laws on grazing reserves. Finally, the study further linked these constant conflicts to the very poor community development in Adamawa State. The study recommended formal education for both farmers and herders, sensitization of the crop farmers and cattle herders by the government and community leaders on the need for both groups to coexist and implementation of the existing laws on grazing reserves and land use policies by the government.

Open Access Original Research Article

Redefining the Position of Daoism (Taoism) in Vietnamese History from the 2nd Century to the 9th Century

Vu Hong Van

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 54-60
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2020/v10i330151

Redefining the value of Taoism in Vietnam is a complex and difficult problem to evaluate thoroughly. This issue of defining and evaluation relates to historical document sources, archaeological relics still exist to this day and especially the influence of Taoism on beliefs life, religious life in particular and in the spiritual activities of Vietnamese people in general. Of the three religions of the Orient: Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Taoism is a religion that is difficult to study. Throughout the development process of the Vietnamese nation, along with Confucianism and Buddhism, Taoism has a significant influence on the spiritual life, tradition, and culture of the Vietnamese nation, especially in the spiritual life of the working people. However, research on this issue is still a very large gap, little attention of researchers. When studying Taoism in Vietnam, it is usually divided into stages, specifically: Taoism in Vietnam in the early period (from the 2nd century to the 9th century); Taoism under the Ly and Tran dynasties (the period when Taoism held the best position in history of Vietnam, often called the Royal Taoism); Taoism under the Le and Nguyen dynasties (the process of Taoism folkization through the worship of Mau Lieu Hanh). In this article, the author focuses on studying Taoism from the 2nd century to the 9th century. Because, at present, the historical documents on Taoism in this period are still quite vague, there are still many the debate broke out about the time when Taoism spread into Vietnam, the audience, Taoist missionaries have been to Vietnam, etc. Therefore, this article focuses on the process of Taoism propagating into Vietnam, identifying historical data that still exist today, Taoist figures have been to Vietnam.