Open Access Original Research Article

Welfare and Effect of Correctional Congestion amongst Inmates in the Niger Delta Region, Nigeria

N. C. Okiwe, O. P. Abu, K. A. Anele

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2020/v10i430153

Aims: To examine the Welfare and effect of Correctional Congestion amongst Inmates in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria.

Study Design: Cross sectional survey design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in selected states and location of correctional service in Niger Delta Region which include, Rivers and Akwa Ibom States between December 2017and September 2018.

Methodology: Simple random sampling technique was adopted in selecting Three Hundred and Eighty-Seven (387) inmates using the Taro Yarmane Formular from the population of Eleven Thousand Six Hundred and Thirty-Five (11,635). Primary and Secondary data were used for this study. Primary data were obtained through the administration of questionnaire. The set of questionnaires was administered to inmates to elicit information on the facilities and comfortability of the prison and the welfare service available. The secondary source of information that was employed included relevant official publications and records from Nigerian Correctional Service, journal articles, periodicals and internet sources. Frequency percentage table were used in presenting information on Demographic Characteristics of respondents.

Results: The major findings of the study revealed that majority have acquired one skill or the other while being incarcerated. They also stated that the most available welfare services provided by the prison system is the library facilities, however they are non-functional. Furthermore, majority stated that they are being fed just once in a day and stated that the major recreational facility present is the football pitch and they indicated that majority of them have been involved in Mid-range Industrial Production training and a major rehabilitation process they have undergone is counselling. On the effect of correctional service Congestion on the Welfare of Inmates Data on the Major Impact of correctional service congestion on welfare of Inmates revealed that majority stated that correctional services congestion has led to death although the number cannot be determined. Majority stated that the untimely death has been one of the consequences of congestion in the prisons and one impact of congestion on their health is getting infection through the toilets.

Conclusion: It was concluded that Prisons congestion has led to death as it can be deduced that untimely death has been one of the consequences of congestion in the Correctional service.

Open Access Original Research Article

Marital Distress among Police Personnel in Awka Metropolis: The Influence of Argument and Self-efficacy

O. Joe-Akunne, Chiamaka, A. Nwankwo, Emeka, U. Ezeakabekwe, Samuel

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 11-19
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2020/v10i430154

The study investigated whether argument and self-efficacy would have an influence on marital distress among police personnel. A total number of one hundred and ninety-seven (197), Nigeria police force (NPF) personnel working in Police headquarters; served as participants for the study. They were selected using non-probability sampling (convenient sampling techniques). They consist of 87(44.2%) females and 110 (58.5%) males; their age ranged from 22-51 years and their mean age was 34.94 with standard deviation of 6.96. Three instruments were used namely: Marital Stress Inventory, Argumentativeness Scale and General Self-Efficacy Scale. Two by Two Factorial design was adopted. Two Way Analysis of Variance statistics was used to analyze the data.  Two hypotheses were tested: the result indicated that hypothesis one which stated that there will be a significant difference between those with positive argument and those with negative argument on marital distress among police personnel and hypothesis two which stated that there will be a significant difference between those with positive self-efficacy and those with negative self-efficacy on marital distress among police personnel were both not accepted at p>.05. Therefore, the study recommended that counselling/marital psychologist should intensify their efforts to organize seminars/conferences on the implications of these factors (argument and self-efficacy) on marital distress among police personnel.

Open Access Original Research Article

Balancing the Delicate Space between Organizational Culture and Customer Service Quality: An Empirical Review for Systemic Excellence in the Electrical Energy Sector in Kenya

Fred Ssemugenyi, Augustine Amboka Asumwa, Sophia Kazibwe

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 20-32
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2020/v10i430155

This systematic and empirical review attempted to expand the frontiers of knowledge by analyzing the existing delicate space between organizational culture and customer service quality, using Kenya Power as a statistical representative sample of the Electrical Energy Sector in Kenya. Organizational culture has been a topical issue in the corporate world for many decades due to its assumed ability to predict business effectiveness and success. Whereas this conviction is a true story in most companies across the globe, in some companies, it is a dreadful undertaking and Kenya Power is no exception. To examine this delicate space, the study tested a null hypothesis of no significant effect between (X) organizational culture and (Y) customer service quality while taking into account the existing multiple covariates within the causal chain. Utilizing a mixed method approach, the study collected both numerical and qualitative data from 76 respondents (n) (statistically obtained from 95 N) and 10 key informants respectively. At the univariate level, frequency counts and means were used while at the multivariate level, multiple linear regression analysis was applied in order to determine the total impact of X(s) on Y, while qualitative analysis was carried out through thematic and discursive methods. Study findings revealed that, all the 7 constructs of the independent variable had a positive and significant effect on the dependent variable. The R Square, which indicates the total impact of X(s) on Y stands at 76%, implying that, the constructs of the independent variable positively and significantly predicted the dependent variable. The extraneous variables, which in this case were competing with the independent variable to explain a change in the dependent variable stand at 24%. Implying that, the excluded independent variables as far as quantitative data were concerned, had a weak impact on the dependent variable. However, the interview results indicated a divergence in opinion and reasoning. Key informants alluded that, re-branding strategies, customer focused models, political factors, ICT adoption, research, quality management system and so on are more relevant than culture itself in predicting organizational effectiveness and customer satisfaction. It is upon this basis that this study recommended that, much as organizational culture is being applauded for shaping customer service quality by the numerical data, it is much more logical to focus on the new inroads provided by the qualitative data in this study. Integrating research, ICT, customer-driven models, and quality management systems in the business processes at Kenya Power, will not only help the firm to establish a competitive culture; rather, will keep it afloat and sound in a business context.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stance and Evaluation in the First Inaugural Speeches of Lagos State Governors: A Roadmap for the Development of Lagos State

Helen Ufuoma Ugah, Oluwayomi Rosemary Olaniyan

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 33-43
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2020/v10i430156

Several researchers have posited that political inaugural speeches embody several meanings that help the politician connect with their audience as well as convey the new administration’s commitment to leadership. This study argues that inaugural speeches also provide a glimpse into the future trajectory of a country or state. This study used Martin and White’s (2005) Appraisal Theory to investigate stance taking in the first inaugural speeches of the following governors of Lagos State: Bola Ahmed Tinubu (1999-2007), Babtunde Raji Fashola (2007-2015) and Akinwunmi Ambode (since 2015). Findings from the study demonstrate that the speeches not only predict the roadmap of the future of Lagos State or proclaim the actions of the Governors and the supposed effects of their past and future actions, but they also contain attitudinal meanings of affect, judgement and appreciation used to connect and communicate effectively with the audience, and also to present the future plans for the development of the state. These findings portray that stance taking in political inaugural speeches is a mechanism used by politicians to galvanise solidarity and support from state, boast about past performances, pledge allegiance to the positive development of the state and call upon citizens to work unanimously with them. These findings corroborate those of the researchers cited above, explicate the nature of the use of language in inaugural speeches, and also maintain that political inaugural speeches give access to the knowledge of the historical development of a political sphere as a result of the stance embedded in them.

Open Access Original Research Article

Employee Deviance as By-product of Psychological Contract: The Moderating Effects of Power Distance among Employees in Insurance Companies in Nigeria

Chukwuemeka N. Etodike, Chiamaka O. Joe-Akunne, Ijeoma M. Obibuba

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 44-54
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2020/v10i430157

Employees have expectations from their organizations; whether they are written, contractual, or not, these expectations have an equally employee outcome such as employee deviance. Indices indicate that employee deviance is on the increase especially in the organized private sector; thus, this study evaluated employee deviance as by-product of psychological contract and power distance among a sample of employees (289) from insurance organizations in Nigeria with an average age of 34.50 years and standard deviation of 3.50. The study sought to ascertain the relationship between psychological contract and employee deviance and whether perceptions of power distance moderated this relationship. Psychological contract inventory (PCI), Power distance scale adapted from CVSCALE Five-dimensional scale of individual cultural values and Workplace deviant behaviour scale were utilized for data collection.  The result of data analysis indicated that the adjusted R2 for step 1 is .24 at F(42.06) p < .01. In the second model, the adjusted R2 is .26 and R change is .002.  This R change was significant at F (33.76), df = 285 p < .01. The Beta coefficient for model 2 shows that psychological contract significantly and negatively predicted employee deviant behaviours at Beta value, thus, the first hypothesis was confirmed at β = -.68, p < .01. Similarly, power distance significantly and positively predicted employee deviant behaviour at β coefficient value of .34, p < .01, thus, the second hypothesis was also confirmed. Also, the third hypothesis where power distance moderated the relationship between psychological contract and employee deviant behaviour was confirmed at β =.27, p < .01. The study concludes that organizations whose interests do not account for the expectations of their employees are at risk of higher levels of employees’ deviance either as byproduct of psychological contract violations or as a retaliatory behaviour.