Open Access Original Research Article

An Evaluation of Impacts of Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria: A Case Study of Abuja Metropolis

Audu Bako Susan, Chijioke, N. Joy, Uwakwe Stanley Ikechukwu

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2020/v11i130158

The deep and far-reaching fear, chaos and uncertainties related to the Boko Haram insurgency make an empirical study of its impacts significant. Boko Haram insurgency has not only resulted in many deaths but has adversely affected agricultural production in Nigeria and distorted local economy. The Global Terrorism Index (GTI) said Boko Haram has killed more people than any other terrorist group in the world, including the Islamic State. Boko Haram is also responsible for deaths and deprivation in an indirect way of starve-killing. Their operations have caused food shortages, created food insecurity in Nigeria resulting in many farmers either being killed, displaced or their livelihoods destroyed. Infrastructural facilities on the other hand, as well as businesses have not been spared of the devastating impacts of the Boko Haram insurgency. This study strategically examined the effectiveness of security agencies management of Boko Haram insurgencies, identified its impact and examined the best management mechanisms for the insurgency, within the contextual preview of Abuja metropolis. The study adopted a quantitative research design of purposive sampling approach and discovered from the research that attacks on the metropolis resulted in urban dislocation and migration. It therefore recommends increased security partnership, improved welfare for security agencies, training of security agencies in intelligence gathering and management, encourage and strengthen grass root community policing.

Open Access Original Research Article

Education and the Challenge of Poverty Alleviation in Nigeria

R. Oke, S. I. Oladeji, O. P. Olofin

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 12-23
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2020/v11i130159

Using Vector Autoregressive and Autoregressive Distributed Lag methods to examine the impact of education on poverty level and the interactive effect of education and economic growth on poverty level in Nigeria between 1985 and 2016, our results show that education promotes poverty level, instead of reducing it. We found significant cointegrating relationship among poverty, economic growth, education, employment rate, population growth rate, real physical capital formation, education level and real GDP. In the short-run, employment rate reduces poverty level, population growth rate increases poverty level both in the short and long-run. The results of interactive effect of economic growth and education on poverty growth show that jointly economic growth and education reduce poverty, although the results are not statistically significant. This shows that they have minimal impact on poverty level in Nigeria. Our findings may not be surprising, given the current slow-down in Nigeria educational system and the wide gap between the few rich and the larger poor. The study suggests improvement in Nigeria educational system so as promote employment and curb rising poverty level.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Community-based Organizations in Addressing Social Equity among Deprived Sections in the Conflict Vulnerable Areas in Karnataka, India

MaryKutty Karimundakkal Augusty, Josefina T. Dizon

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 24-41
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2020/v11i130160

Aim: This study assessed the social equity situations in conflict vulnerable areas, and examined the role of 40 community-based organizations (CBOs) spread across the four sub-regions in Karnataka targeting societal change towards social equity.

Study Design: The study employed the survey research design with a sample of 420 beneficiaries of CBO-implemented programs and focus group discussion the officials of each of the CBOs.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Karnataka, India and data gathering was conducted from July 2019 to September 2019

Methodology: Data for the study were obtained through the use of survey, focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics using chi-square test were done in analysing the data.

Results: The primary role of CBOs, based on evidence from their vision and mission, is to bridge the social equity gap between marginalized and vulnerable communities and the mainstream society through program initiatives and education. These programs were mainly on skills training, child rights protection, and with other major concerns enveloped as social justice and fairness operationalized through access to livelihood, access to education, participation in the political and cultural life, access to self-determination, and peace building community. Besides the preventive roles played by CBOs, they also provide rehabilitation for the exploited and abused in society.

Conclusion: The CBOs in consultation with relevant government agencies, should organize programs in unifying the cultural and religious diversities, widen the scope of their educational programs, and provide the beneficiaries with specialized educational programs along with their skills training to qualify them to bid for contracts in government and non-governmental organizations since there are still visible evidence of social inequalities despite the extensive implementation and awareness education provided thus far.

Open Access Original Research Article

Changing Lessons: The Kumasi School of “Art and Crafts” in a Scottish Regime (1952-1962)

Kąrî'kạchä Seid’ou

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 42-71
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2020/v11i130161

This paper fills a gap in the historiography of Ghana’s modern art curricula. Between 1952 and the turn of the 20th century, the Kumasi College of Art (KNUST), operated two successive curriculum models, the “Art as Teacher Training” model and the “Art as Industrial, Commercial and Professional Enterprise model”. “The Art as Teacher Training” model, the emphasis of this paper, was administered by a team of British and African staff of “Art and Crafts” persuasion. The first decade (1952-1962), led by a Scottish regime of Glasgow Style extraction, upgraded an extant Specialist Art and Crafts Course to a Diploma in Fine Art programme. The study shows how the changing lessons of the Gold Coast and Ghana “School of Art and Crafts” curriculum in Kumasi intersected with the changing fortunes of metropolitan British art institutions such as the Glasgow School of Art (GSA), the Slade, and Royal College of Art (RCA). The paper argues that the persistence of the “Art and Crafts” and “teacher training” ethos in the Scottish regime could have heralded a move towards an emancipated curriculum indifferent to media specialization and antithetical to media-genre-skill elitism. The author notes that the blurred boundaries between “art” and “craft” or “art” and “the everyday” seem prescient for its time, yet, the curriculum’s vocationalist and instrumentalist framework stood in the way of producing independent artists of note.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ibn Hazm’s Views on Islamic Ethics with Special Reference to Kitab al-Akhlaq wa-al-Siyar

Hafiz Zakariya

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 72-81
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2020/v11i130162

Ibn Hazm is one of the most profound thinkers the Muslim ummah ever produced. Despite his pre-eminence, he has been comparatively neglected in the mainstream scholarship. Ibn Hazm is a multi-talented scholar whose influence transcends knowledge boundaries. In fact, he is a renowned traditionist, historian of religion, theologian, philosopher, great theoretician of the Zahiri School and so forth. Further, he is claimed to have written four hundred volumes on various disciplines. This article provides a historical analysis of the life and times of Ibn Hazm. It discusses the biography, religio-intellectual milieus of al-Andalus during Ibn Hazm’s lifetime, the salient aspects of Ibn Hazm’s ideas and his views on ethics. Ibn Hazm’s views on ethics reject the use of analogical reasoning as a source of religious truth and denial of inspiration (Ilham) as a legitimate means of the ethical knowledge. Ibn Hazm strongly believes in the autonomy of God as the sole source of value judgment, against the rationalist approach of the Mu’tazilah. This study primarily adopts the methods of textual analysis. As ideas do not develop in isolation from the larger contexts, the textual analysis method is aided by the method of historical research.