Open Access Case study

The Potential for Creative Socio-cultural Energy of Coastal Communities in the Maluku Islands

Idrus Hentihu, . Sumardjo, Basita Ginting Sugihen, Djoko Susanto

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 47-58
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2020/v11i330173

The coastal areas of the Maluku Islands are the most prominent poverty-polarizing areas, both physically and socially with relatively isolated geographical positions. The social energy of creative culture has the potential to become a social resilience scheme in realizing welfare based on common interests. This qualitative study was conducted in Buru Island, Maluku Islands and aims to explain the potential of socio-cultural energy as a scheme of community social resilience in survival on the coast of Buru Island, Maluku Islands. The results of this study show that there is a potential for energy creative social culture that serves as a community social resilience scheme, where through this potential although in limited circumstances and conditions, the community seems to be able to find a way out of a variety of problems, including the poverty problems they faced to stay alive. Meanwhile, on the potential of social energy, This then becomes a force and even a guideline for the community independently through creative and constructive efforts turned out to be able to empower themselves and its community to get out of trouble Including the problem of poverty, which is now a major problem for people living on the coast of Buru Island.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pre-service Teachers Perception, Knowledge and Attitudes toward Stigmatization of Mentally Ill Patients in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile- Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

Adekemi Quamariyat Idowu, Babatunde Adeniyi Adeyemi

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2020/v11i330169

The study investigated the pre- service teachers’ perception, knowledge and attitudes towards stigmatization of mentally ill patient in Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile- Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. It further examined the perceived causes of stigmatization, effect of stigmatization on mentally ill- patients as well as the measure that can be adopted to reduce and eliminate stigmatization of mentally ill patients in our society. It further investigated the influence of gender on pre- service teachers’ perception and attitude towards stigmatization of mentally ill patients on one hand and the influence of gender on pre- service teachers’ knowledge of mental illness on the other. The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. The population consisted of all pre- service teachers in the Faculty of Education. The sample comprised 400 pre- service teachers randomly selected across four departments in the faculty. Data for the study were collected using a questionnaire titled “Questionnaire on Pre- service Teachers Perception, Knowledge and Attitudes towards Stigmatization of Mentally Ill- Patients”. Data collected were analysed using frequency counts, percentages, Relative Significance Index and chi- square statistical method of analysis. The results showed the major causes of stigmatization with their respective Relative Significance Index (RSI) values as perceived dangerous and unpredictable behaviour of mentally ill patients (RSI=0.75); lack of recognition of mental illness as other illness (RSI=0.71); inability to live independently (RSI=0.71). It is concluded that the perception of pre-service teachers towards stigmatization of mentally ill patients as well as adequate knowledge of mental illness did not reflect on their attitude towards the phenomenon.

Open Access Original Research Article

Foreign Policy Analysis: A Theoretical Assessment of U.S.-China Military Relations

Tomiwa Sunday Adebayo, Victor Adjarho Ovuakporaye

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 12-24
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2020/v11i330170

Bringing together two nations that are so disconnected from culture and history was a major task. China's attempts to develop a new kind of great power relationship and a 'new type of military-to-military relationship with the United State is not a major turning point. Political relations place restrictions for military cooperation and the two countries were unable to establish a viable strategic relationship. That has attributed to a trend in military ties which is on and off. Trends show a level of frequent interruptions in military-to-military interactions between 2000 and 2010, accompanied by a rise in relationships starting in 2012 to date. However, hurdles on both ends are likely to restrict mutual understanding and inhibit the advancement of military-to-military ties in the future. The issue of Taiwan, China behaviors in the SCS, and its hegemony in the region were too insignificant to form a foundation for a permanent partnership.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Society’s Resilience to Conflict: An Analysis of Its Key Determinants in Conflict-Prone Rakhine State of Myanmar

Htet Paing Oo

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 25-36
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2020/v11i330171

This study explored contributors to a society’s resilience to conflict in a multiethnic community in Rakhine State of Myanmar. It examined how a society’s resilience to conflict was related to economic and sociocultural interactions between diverse communities, presence of security forces in a community’s neighboring areas, physical isolation from outsiders, people’s rumour verification practices, presence of civil society organizations (CSOs) and community based organizations (CBOs), and efficient community leadership. A survey of 1,668 respondents in 27 conflict-unaffected and conflict-affected villages and interview with 1,200 respondents was conducted among members of diverse ethnic groups across Rakhine State. Results suggested that there was a significant and positive correlation between a society’s resilience to conflict and each of ‘economic interactions’ (P = .000), ‘sociocultural interactions’ (P = .000), ‘presence of security forces in a community’s neighboring areas’ (P = .000), and ‘efficient community leadership’ (P = .000). Despite each individual of these independent variables being weakly correlated with the dependent variable, their combined effect strongly correlated with the dependent one. On the other hand, a society’s resilience to conflict negatively correlated with each of ‘physical isolation from outsiders’ (P = .001) and ‘people’s rumour verification practices' (P = .000). However, a society’s resilience to conflict hardly correlated with ‘presence of civil society organizations (CSOs) and community based organizations (CBOs)’, with only less than 1% of respondents in both conflict resilient and vulnerable areas articulating the significant role of these organizations in preventing intercommunal conflict in their areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

The National Democratic Congress (NDC) and Human Rights Promotion in the Fourth Republic of Ghana

Harrison Kofi Belley

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 37-46
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2020/v11i330172

Human rights are a justified entitlement that any person may claim because of being human       and that right to be socially guaranteed. Ensuring human rights requires that institutions are committed to their promotion and enforcement. It is against this backdrop with respect to the human rights record of Ghana especially under her Fourth Republic that this work is motivated to assess the promotion and protection of human rights under the National Democratic Congress (NDC) regime from 2009 to 2017. The work seeks to examine the political environment that the NDC created during its eight years of administration to ensure the enjoyment of fundamental human rights, with focus on how it strengthened constitutional human right institutions like the Commission of Human Rights and Administrative Justice (CHRAJ) and the Media. This work is qualitative and uses primary and secondary sources of data to gather the information. The findings of this work reveal and confirm that human rights was the premise of Ghana`s transition to democratic rule since 1993 with the promulgation of the Fourth Republican Constitution which makes provision for the enjoyment of fundamental human rights and freedoms. The study recommends that the promotion and protection of human rights should be a matter of a collective responsibility.