Open Access Original Research Article

University EFL Students’ Perceptions toward Globalization of English and its Effect on their Pragmatic Competence

Awatif M. Abu Al-Sha'r

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2021/v13i230207

This study highlights EFL university students’ perceptions toward using English as a global language and on its effect on their pragmatic competence through using global English approach. The rationale of conducting this study stemmed from the incredible involvement of this generation into technological innovations via English. The participants 66 undergraduate students were randomly selected from the English Language Department at Al-al-Bayt University in Jordan during the second semester in2019/2020. They were divided into two groups: Experimental 35  and control 31.Two instruments were developed: A questionnaire of 37 items, to measure the degree of the participants’ attitudes toward global English, and a pre-posttest to check the effect of global English approach on the students' pragmatic competence. Validity of the two instruments was ascertained. The results revealed that the students’ attitudes toward using global English were highly appreciated. The findings embedded that there were statistically significant differences at (a=0.05) between the aspects of pragmatic competence of complementing from one side and between expressing opinion and offering help from the other side in favor of complementing. It was also proved that there were statistically significant differences at (a=0.05) between the aspects of complaining from one side and between expressing opinion and offering help from the other side in favor of complaining. These results could be attributed to the effect of using global English approach. The researcher suggested some relevant recommendations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Skill Improvement Efforts in Ensemble Learning by Using Snake’s Singer in Taruna Nusantara Senior High School

Nicholas Ferdeta Lakusa, Kun Setyaning Astuti

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 17-23
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2021/v13i230208

Aims: The objective of this research was to investigate and analyze a programme model called Snake’s Singer to improve the ensemble skills of 10th grade matriculation-class students of SMA Taruna Nusantara.

Study Design:  The design of this research is classroom action research.

Place and Duration of Study: This research was conducted at Taruna Nusantara Senior High School, Magelang, Indonesia on November 16 - December 5, 2020. This research was conducted at Taruna Nusantara Senior High School. The implementation of activities is 60 minutes in 6 meetings on November - December 2020.

Methodology: This type of classroom action research is carried out in two cycles; each cycle consists of 4 stages (planning, implementing the action, observing and reflecting). The data collection technique used the performance test by assessing the TIPPS (Tone, Intonation, Phrasing, Precision, and Style) aspects. Descriptive statistics is used to analyze the data.

Results: The result shows that there is an improvement in students' musical instrument playing skills. This is proven by the increase of the average score achieved by students as followed 64.3 for pre-cycle, 73.8 for cycle I, and 81.1 for cycle II.

Open Access Original Research Article

Problems and Challenges on Urban Water Management in Darjeeling Hill Town

Suvechha Ghatani

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 24-33
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2021/v13i230209

Provision of basic services such as portable water and sanitation are vital for health and wellbeing of the society. The growing intensity of use of water in urban environment due to increasing urbanization and rapidly growing population has posed significant challenges for efficient water supply and conservation in many developing countries. Darjeeling town alike most of these developing countries struggle for the improved access of water for urban population. The urban dwellers in Darjeeling Town struggles for the improved access of water due to increasing urban population. The daily uncertainty and anxiety over the access to water has been a common sight to the people in urban Darjeeling hills. The rapidly growing urban population associated with the increasing demand for water has led to striking challenges in the management practice of water resources. Consequently, a huge imbalance has generated between the demand and supply of water in the town. The present study therefore attempts to explore the existing situation of water resources and discuss the issues and challenges around the management of water resources in the urban landscape of Darjeeling hills. The study revealed that the gradual introduction of developmental activities, faulty construction plans relating to water, political intrusion, poor governance system and lack of public awareness are some of the prominent factors for insufficient water supply and creating a situation of scarcity in Darjeeling.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evolution of Urban forms in Port Harcourt Metropolis

G. P. Bisco, A. A. Obafemi, O. D. Chukwudi, M. Ogoro

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 34-45
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2021/v13i230212

The nature of urban development in Port Harcourt Metropolis makes for the study of urban evolution dynamics across the metropolis. Land-Sat Tm of 30m x 30m of 1986, 2000 and 2015 were employed to examine the changes in urban development across the study area. The direction of urban growth as revealed by the image analysis was digitized in the Arc GIS 10.4 environment. Findings revealed that, the morphology of the city is in the form of a non-regular polygon. The analysis also reveals that, there is an increase in the growth of the city from 1986 through 2000 and, then 2015. The growth direction of the city grew more north-ward rather than south-ward. The growth in the city population and the expansion of networks of roads, resulted in the transformation of the city form, and as development evolved, industrial locations were now focused in the Northern fringe of the city occupying extensive land areas which gave rise to other micro industrial and residential buildings extending northward hence, the visible level of anthropogenic activities or alterations. The study therefore recommends that, geographical boundaries should be given great emphasis by planning authorities in plan preparation in other to accommodate developmental growth and expansions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determining Urban Identity of a Historical City from Inhabitants’ Perspective: Erzurum, a Case from Asia Minor

Neslihan Kulözü-Uzunboy

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 46-63
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2021/v13i230213

Aims: This study aims to explore the urban identity of Erzurum, which has a rich cultural and historical background dates back to 4000 BC, from the perspective of inhabitants. Additionally, the differences between perceptions about urban identity elements of various inhabitants' groups, categorized in terms of age, gender, education level, being a native of Erzurum, and length of residence in Erzurum, are determined.

Study Design: The research was designed as a case-study and pursued an exploratory research approach.

Place and Duration of Study: The study has been conducted in Erzurum, located in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. Interviews have been conducted with 268 inhabitants of Erzurum between May and June 2015.

Methodology: Within the context of the study, Erzurum's urban identity is determined through its elements that are commonly classified as topographical properties, climate and flora, elements at settlement level, urban equipment, symbolic elements, socio-cultural properties, and socio-economical properties. The present study has been designed as an exploratory case study in which qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques have been used.

Results: This study, through answering its research questions, reveals that, first, environmental identity elements have more significance than social identity elements; second, natural environmental elements as Palandöken Mountain and cold climate, and artificial identity elements as Cumhuriyet Street and the Twin Minaret Madrasa are the most significant identity elements; and, third, differences between the respondents’ age and education helps to explain the differences between their perception on urban identity elements, in the case of Erzurum.

Conclusion: This exploratory case study, departing from the idea that urban identity is a social and cultural phenomenon and unique for each individual and society, explored the urban identity elements from the perspective of the inhabitants of Erzurum. In the end, the importance of determining urban identity based on inter-subjectively built consensus to protect the uniqueness of the cities has been highlighted.