Open Access Original Research Article

Capacity Development, a Tool for Promoting Efficient Primary Health Care Services Delivery in Obudu Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria

E. M. Ushie, J. A. Adie, G. A. Osim-Ekpe, B. J. Nwani, I. A. Beshel

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2021/v14i330237

This study is intended to investigate the role of Capacity development in promoting efficient primary health care services delivery in Obudu Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the purpose of this study, the researchers set out basic structures for the study and three research objectives were identified and three research questions were framed which resulted in three hypothesis. A well designed questionnaire was prepared, one hundred and thirty (130) copies printed and distributed to Primary Health Care workers in the Local Government for completion. One hundred and twenty (120) copies (of the questionnaire) were returned, representing 92% success, while ten (10) copies were destroyed for want of information and poor completion. The one hundred and twenty (120) copies were used for analysis. The data were extracted from the questionnaire and arranged in tables to ease analysis. The result revealed that; capacity development will result in the development of sustainable skills among Primary health care workers in Obudu Local Government Area, Cross River State; capacity development can bring about efficient health services delivery at the Primary health care level and serve as a means of motivating Primary health care workers in Obudu Local Government Area, Cross River State. The study recommended that; Capacity development should be promoted to sustain skills among Primary health care workers, Primary health care workers should be encourage to attend professional development seminars and incentives should be provided to motivate them to attend workshops and certificates issued from such workshops should be used as bases for promotion. It is hope that this will bring about tremendous changes in services delivery at the Primary Health Care level in the Local Government.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons and the Challenges of National Security in Nigeria: A Case Study of Adamawa State

Umaru Tsaku Samuel

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 10-23
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2021/v14i330238

The proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALWs) is a major national security challenge in Nigeria. The insecurity resulting from insurgency, banditry, militancy, kidnapping, armed robbery, ethno-religious and communal conflicts have become worrisome in Nigeria. All this, are perpetrated with small arms and light weapons, which are easily concealed and used to unleash violence in the society. There is hardly any week that passes by, without a report of one attack or the other somewhere in Nigeria. Adamawa state is not different as security challenges perpetrated with SALWs have destroyed lives and properties, and displaced a lot of people many of whom are farmers thereby, threatening food security. Again, Boko-Haram insurgency has over the years increased the availability of SALWs in the state. Porosity of Nigerian borders in Adamawa state axis has equally made it much easier for criminals to smuggle in SALWs into the state from neighboring Cameroon. The security agencies that are saddled with the responsibility to check this are complicit, as the bad ones facilitate the smuggling or are themselves sources of SALWs. Today, there is mutual distrust and deep seated grievances among the various ethnic groups co-habiting the state due to injustice. The deep seated grievances have made groups to acquire SALWs for self-help and retaliation. Furthermore, suspicion is commonplace and many people have lost trust and faith in the security architecture of the state government. Thus, people have resorted to the acquisition of SALWs for self-defense. Above all, politicians procure arms for the youths during elections. These arms are never returned as they are used to make ends meet due to poverty and unemployment ravaging the country. It is within the context of this broad narrative that the proliferation of SALWs is situated in Adamawa state nay Nigeria. Therefore, to check this menace, there is need to rejig the security architecture of Adamawa state and indeed Nigeria. Border security must be strengthened through cross-border security arrangement with Nigeria neighbors. The culture of violence in politics must be de-emphasized and the premium attached to political office should be reduced. Poverty and unemployment should be reduced and Justice should be served to all who deserve it. Finally, mutual trust should be encouraged by the government to foster inter-ethnic and religious co-existence and harmony among the diverse people in the state.

Open Access Original Research Article

Consolidating Peace in the Niger Delta for National Development in Nigeria: Rising Beyond Tokenism

Umaru Tsaku Samuel, Moses E. U. Tedheke

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 24-41
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2021/v14i330239

This study attempts an investigation into oil politics and other related issues that have generated security crisis in the Niger Delta region, which made peace to elude the people over the years. For decades, peace in the Niger Delta remains a mirage because of the violence and counter violence unleashed by the different stakeholders in oil production in the Niger Delta. While the militants in the Niger Delta resorted to kidnapping of expatriates, oil theft, and the destruction of oil installations of the international oil companies to register their grievances against the Nigerian state and international oil companies over the debilitating development conditions in oil producing communities, the Nigerian state had militarized the region to maintain law and order in the oil producing areas in order to secure oil installations of the international oil companies which were targeted for destruction by the militants who felt the federal government and oil companies have not done enough to improve the living conditions of the people. To pacify the Niger Delta people and to ensure seamless oil production in the region, the federal government introduced some initiatives and created different Commissions such as the Oil Mineral Producing Areas Development Commission, increased derivation formula in revenue allocation to 13 percent and the establishment of the Niger Delta Development Commission to engender peace and development in the region. In recent times however, the federal government in furtherance of its commitment to resolve the Niger Delta crisis created the Ministry of Niger Delta and equally granted Amnesty for repentant militants with a view to re-integrating them back to the society in the interest of national peace and development. Except for Amnesty Programme which introduced relative peace in the Niger Delta, which itself failed to address the root causes of underdevelopment, all other initiatives have not engendered development and lasting peace in the oil-rich Niger Delta region. These initiatives and Commissions were simply tokenism as they failed to fundamentally, reposition the region on the path of sustainable growth and development. However, in generating data for this research, both primary and secondary data were used for analysis. The primary data were obtained from questionnaires, interviews and focus group discussions carried out in Bayelsa and River states. The study concluded that peace and development is possible in the Niger Delta if conscious and deliberate efforts are made by the government and international oil companies to improve the lots of the people who bear the devastating consequences of oil production in Nigeria. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Television and Social Media Convergence (Convergence Continum and Journalistic Convergence Analysis at Indosiar)

Moehammad Gafar Yoedtadi, Andi Mirza Ronda, Umaimah Wahid

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 56-72
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2021/v14i330241

This study aims to determine the convergence process between social media and television in Indonesian television broadcasting companies, by taking a case study at a television broadcasting company called Indosiar. Convergence is carried out as a result of the large number of social media users in Indonesia. The number of internet users in Indonesia is 175.4 million people or 64% of the total population of Indonesia. Meanwhile, the number of social media users reaches 160 million people or 59% of Indonesia's total population. Many television broadcasting companies are converging with social media, one of them is Indosiar. The research using the observation method was carried out mid to late 2019. The research was stopped due to the Covid-19 pandemic. The research continued with in-depth interviews in early 2021. To find out the form of convergence that occurs in Indosiar, this study uses the concept of Pavlik (2001) regarding journalistic convergence: newsroom, newsgathering and content. Meanwhile, to determine the degree of convergence, this study uses the convergence continuum from Dailey, Demo and Spillman (2005). This research uses qualitative case study methods and data collection techniques through in-depth interviews with eight senior journalists and managers managing convergence, field observations and documentation. The results of the study conclude that the newsroom convergence that occurs in Indosiar is a type of Co-ordination of isolated platforms as formulated by Aviles et al (2009). The newsgathering convergence model at Indosiar is partial because it only occurs on special projects and does not become a daily work routine (Khadzig, 2016). The content convergence model that occurs in Indosiar is not yet capable of multiplatform (Tomic, 2015). Meanwhile, based on the convergence continuum, Indosiar has carried out the cross-promotion and cloning stages well, but has not fully carried out the coopetition and content sharing stages, and has not done full convergence at all.

Open Access Review Article

Oil and Global Insecurity: Lessons from Asia, Latin America and African Oil Producing Countries

Umaru Tsaku Samuel

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 42-55
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2021/v14i330240

This paper critically digs into history to examine the role oil played in generating war among nations. It also examines conflicts and agitations within nations as well as regime-change in the global system with their attendant consequences on global security. The discovery of oil as a major source of energy for the running of military and civilian complexes the world over, has been a blessing and a curse. Oil as a commodity has contributed in no small measure to growth and development as it helps in turning the wheels necessary for industrialization.  However, the search for oil over the years by nations of the world has engendered conflicts and full-fletched wars within and among nations due to antagonistic encounter of interests. Asian and African oil producing countries are the worst hit, as established powers sponsor proxy wars, change unfriendly regimes in the name of accessing abundant oil resources with all the security implications these portend. Within the oil producing states, agitations and rebellion are commonplace in oil producing regions. The governing elites see oil revenue as opportunity for primitive accumulation leaving the people in oil producing regions in extreme poverty and deprivation in the midst of abundant wealth. The frustration and agony of the people find expression in violence and counter violence by the state reducing the oil regions to theaters of conflicts and security crises. The paper however, concluded and recommended that; oil search by the established and emerging powers should be carried out within the confines of the law. Oil producing states deserve to be respected by the international community to utilize their resources for the development of their people. There must not be interference in their internal affairs. Again, the governing elites should develop strategies for equitably distributing oil wealth among the various stake holders within the oil producing states so as to nib rebellion in the bud for the sake of international peace and security.