Open Access Commentary

Reinterpreting Psychoneurosis to Ascertain Mass Pathology in Civilized Society

Tarika Sandhu

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2021/v15i230252

During the psychoanalytic discovery and investigation of Psychoneurosis, theoretical scaffoldings offered by Freudian theory were expansive and rich but still incomplete. Amongst the Neo–Freudians, Fromm began unearthing the psychopathology of the society under the heavy influence of Marx. Fromm remarked that the grown-up patient was not a child but an alienated adult who was seen as the neurotic. Feelings of inadequacy, worthlessness and inhibition occurred because the patient did not experience himself as the subject and originator of his own acts and experiences. Alienation had thus caused the neuroses to occur. Ushering in ‘spiritual liberation’ along with complete change of the ‘economic social constellation’ for Fromm were the necessary prerequisites before envisioning a cure of societal pathologies rooted in the contemporary mode of production. Freud on the other hand was sceptical about the application of psychoanalysis to civilization. He ringed in caution to the application of systems of knowledge developed at the individual level when projected to more global levels. Diagnosis of a “collective neurosis” would be tedious since no starting point associated with its development could emerge as the fixation point. Another hurdle that needed to be addressed according to Freud was that even if a substantial system of knowledge did take shape its implementation would be a herculean task. It would take great skill and courage to compel a community to become aware of its blind spots and become available to therapy. Thus, the growth and development of Psychoneurosis had charted a trajectory from the unexplored abysmal depths of the psyche to the more gross levels of societal productions. This paper attempts to establish links between the classic concept of Psychoneurosis and the larger gamut of modern-day society’s psychic reflections.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Hypocrisy of Dutch Actions in Indonesia

Julie A. Keil

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 8-23
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2021/v15i230253

At the end of World War 2 the Netherlands, through its own military tribunals, tried and convicted several members of the Japanese and German militaries for their participation in the war crime of extra judicial executions in Indonesia and the Netherlands.  Several of the convicted men were executed by the Netherlands while others sentenced to lengthy prison terms.  From 1946-1949 the Netherlands, primarily through commando Raymond Westerling, engaged in the same actions they accused the Japanese of having committed.  While no specific order was ever revealed showing that Westerling’s actions were ordered by the military, the Netherlands tacitly approved his actions by failing to control him and his men and by their unwillingness to take responsibility for his actions before or after the Netherlands withdrew its forces from Indonesia in 1949.  This research paper explores the extrajudicial executions conducted by Westerling, his men, other Dutch military and the Dutch government in order to provide a better and more thorough understanding of these events and the lack of national or international action against war crimes committed after World War 2.  It concludes that the Netherlands has failed to try or even accuse Westerling and others of war crimes or take actions to discipline them, and in fact has covered up his actions and failed to make public those war crimes.  Further that the reason for this continued hypocritical refusal is a concern for the reputation of the Netherlands in the world and a belief that high levels of government would be found complicit.

Open Access Original Research Article

Online Teaching Readiness of Teachers in Salesian Schools

Fr. Rooney John G. Undar, Dennis V. Madrigal

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 24-36
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2021/v15i230254

Aims: The study assessed Salesian educators’ level of online teaching readiness and the challenges they have encountered during the conduct of online classes.

Study Design: This descriptive-comparative and correlational study gathered data from Salesian Educators as respondents and Bosconians as assessors.

Place and Duration of Study: Salesian Schools in the Philippines during the School Year 2020-2021

Methodology: The study gathered data from 368 Salesian Educators as respondents and 365 Bosconians as assessors using a researcher-made survey. The respondents were the whole population of High School Salesian Educators from the different Salesian Schools in the Philippines with 365 students picked through stratified random sampling. Teachers’ online teaching readiness data were gathered using a researcher-made instrument based on the principles of technological, pedagogical, and attitudinal competencies.

Results: As a whole, Salesian Educators demonstrate very high online teaching readiness with an obtained mean of 3.35 regardless of the teachers’ age, sex, length of service, and online teaching experience. Both the teachers’ assessment (M=3.42, SD=0.34) and the student assessment (M=3.28, SD=0.35) indicated very high online teaching readiness. Moreover, the findings suggest a significant difference in teachers’ online teaching readiness when the assessors are grouped according to teacher and student designation [U=51722.5, p=0.000]. Meanwhile, no significant relationship between age and the teachers’ online teaching readiness [ρ (366) =-0.064, p=0.222], length of service and teachers’ online teaching readiness [ρ (366) =-0.062, p=0.236], online teaching experience and teachers' online teaching readiness [χ2(2) =1.253, p=0.534]. On the other hand, a significant relationship between teachers’ online teaching readiness and sex [χ2(2) =8.811, p=0.012] was established. Majority of teachers' challenges include dealing with passive students (87.5%), following up students (78.8%), dealing with technical difficulties (67.1%).

Conclusion: Salesian Educators are ready to teach online however, teachers must continuously upgrade and update to remain relevant in this fast-paced digital era.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stress Inducing Factors and Its Effect on Employees Performance among Selected Instituions

C. O. Emuchay, O. Ekpenyong, O. P. Abu

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 37-50
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2021/v15i230255

Aims: The study examined the relationship between stress inducing factors and employee performance in Michael Imoudu National Institute for Labour Studies (MINILS) and National Directorate of Employment (NDE).

Study Design: Cross sectional survey design.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Michael Imoudu National Institute for labour studies and National Directorate of Employment (NDE) between December 2019 and September 2020

Methodology: The survey method was employed whilst 400 respondents were purposively selected from the Training department, Planning, Research and Curriculum Development department and Programs department which are the core departments under pressure to deliver all year round in the institutions under study. The questionnaire was the main instrument for data collection. The Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used in analyzing the data.

Results: Results show that the most stress inducing factor was pressure to deliver on time because of mode of operations (60%), non-conducive working environment (59%) and being insufficiently skilled for the job (37%). The effects of stress on employee performance include dependence on drugs and alcohol (86%), illness and sickness (75%), fatigue (40%) and irritability (25%).

Conclusion: It is recommended that a conducive working environment should be created for employees and that counselors and counseling rooms should be provided by organizations to enable their employees have a safe place to de-stress without fear of stigmatization. Also, training and re-training of employees should be done frequently to improve set skills. This will significantly reduce work stress and enhance performance which will in turn increase organizational productivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Happiness among Undergraduates: What is the Role of Humour Styles?

Chidozie Emmanuel Mabia, Chidozie Edwin Nwafor, Kizto Ifunanya Okonkwo, Emeka A. Nwankwo, Paschal Kandilichukwu Officha, Kingsley Onyibo Nweke, Samuel Uche Ezeakabekwe, Tobias Chineze Enike, Chidiebere Udensi, Ikemefuna Henry Eweni

Asian Research Journal of Arts & Social Sciences, Page 51-58
DOI: 10.9734/arjass/2021/v15i230256

Hedonism theory and desire theory assumed that internal factors (humour styles) may explain happiness among undergraduates. In the current study, the assumption is tested among 226 undergraduates of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka. Ages of the participants were 18-40 years (M= 21.66 years, SD= 3.10). Two scales were used to collect data for the study: Subjective happiness scale (SHS) and humour styles questionnaire (HSQ). The study adopted correlation design and the hypothesis was tested with multiple regression analysis. The results indicated that humour styles; affiliative humour, self-enhancing humour and self-defeating humour significantly predicted happiness while aggressive humour did not. The outcome of the study suggested for the first time a framework for understanding the role of humour styles on happiness. It was suggested that affiliative, self-enhancing and self-defeating humour styles should be encouraged and included in the University’s programs as part of general studies, routine seminars, conferences and orientations of new students.